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Anti-Doping Rules

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WBSC – WORLD BASEBALL SOFTBALL CONFEDERATION
Anti-Doping Rules are based on Wada’s Models of Best Practice for International Federations and the World Anti-Doping Code.

Valid from 1.1.2015

WBSC ANTI-DOPING RULES

INTRODUCTION

Preface
These Anti-Doping Rules are adopted and implemented in accordance with WBSC’s responsibilities under the Code, and in furtherance of WBSC’s continuing efforts to eradicate doping in sport.

These Anti-Doping Rules are sport rules governing the conditions under which sport is played. Aimed at enforcing anti-doping principles in a global and harmonized manner, they are distinct in nature from criminal and civil laws, and are not intended to be subject to or limited by any national requirements and legal standards applicable to criminal or civil proceedings. When reviewing the facts and the law of a given case, all courts, arbitral tribunals and other adjudicating bodies should be aware of and respect the distinct nature of these Anti-Doping Rules implementing the Code and the fact that these rules represent the consensus of a broad spectrum of stakeholders around the world as to what is necessary to protect and ensure fair sport.

Fundamental Rationale for the Code and WBSC’s Anti-Doping Rules
Anti-doping programs seek to preserve what is intrinsically valuable about sport. This intrinsic value is often referred to as “the spirit of sport”. It is the essence of Olympism, the pursuit of human excellence through the dedicated perfection of each person’s natural talents. It is how we play true. The spirit of sport is the celebration of the human spirit, body and mind, and is reflected in values we find in and through sport, including:

  •  Ethics, fair play and honesty
  • Health
  • Excellence in performance
  • Character and education
  • Fun and job
  •  Teamwork
  • Dedication and commitment
  • Respect for rules and laws
  • Respect for self and other Participants
  • Courage
  • Community and solidarity

Doping is fundamentally contrary to the spirit of sport.

Scope of these Anti-Doping Rules
These Anti-Doping Rules shall apply to WBSC and to each of its National Federations. They also apply to the following Athletes, Athlete Support Personnel and other Persons, each of whom is deemed, as a condition of his/her membership, accreditation and/or participation in the sport, to have agreed to be bound by these Anti-Doping Rules, and to have submitted to the authority of WBSC to enforce these Anti-Doping Rules and to the jurisdiction of the hearing panels specified in Article 8 and Article 13 to hear and determine cases and appeals brought under these Anti-Doping Rules:

a. all Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel who are members of WBSC, or of any National Federation, or of any member or affiliate organization of any National Federation (including any clubs, teams, associations or leagues);

b. all Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel participating in such capacity in Events, Competitions and other activities organized, convened, authorized or recognized by WBSC, or any National Federation, or any member or affiliate organization of any National Federation (including any clubs, teams, associations or leagues), wherever held;

c. any other Athlete or Athlete Support Personnel or other Person who, by virtue of an accreditation, a licence or other contractual arrangement, or otherwise, is subject to the jurisdiction of WBSC, or of any National Federation, or of any member or affiliate organization of any National Federation (including any clubs, teams, associations or leagues), for purposes of anti-doping; To be eligible for participation in International Events, a competitor must have personally signed the Appendix 3 consent form, in the actual form approved by the WBSC. All forms from Minors must be counter-signed by their legal guardians and

d. Athletes who are not regular members of WBSC or of one of its National Federations but who want to be eligible to compete in a particular International Event. WBSC may include such Athletes in its Registered Testing Pool so that they are required to provide information about their whereabouts for purposes of Testing under these Anti-Doping Rules for at least one month prior to the International Event in question.

Within the overall pool of Athletes set out above who are bound by and required to comply with these Anti-Doping Rules, the following Athletes shall be considered to be International-Level Athletes for purposes of these Anti-Doping Rules, and therefore the specific provisions in these Anti-Doping Rules applicable to International-Level Athletes (as regards Testing but also as regards TUEs, whereabouts information, results management, and appeals) shall apply to such Athletes:

a. Athletes who are part of the WBSC Registered Testing Pool and Testing Pool;
b. Any Athletes who participate in any WBSC International Events (such as friendly games and/or official games).

ARTICLE 1. DEFINITION OF DOPING

Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the anti-doping rule violations set forth in Article 2.1 through Article 2.10 of these Anti-Doping Rules.

ARTICLE 2 ANTI-DOPING RULE VIOLATIONS

The purpose of Article 2 is to specify the circumstances and conduct which constitute anti-doping rule violations. Hearings in doping cases will proceed based on the assertion that one or more of these specific rules have been violated.

Athletes or other Persons shall be responsible for knowing what constitutes an anti-doping rule violation and the substances and methods which have been included on the Prohibited List.

The following constitute anti-doping rule violations:

2.1 Presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in an Athlete’s Sample

2.1.1 It is each Athlete’s personal duty to ensure that no Prohibited Substance enters his or her body. Athletes are responsible for any Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers found to be present in their Samples. Accordingly, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, negligence or knowing Use on the Athlete’s part be demonstrated in order to establish an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.1.

[Comment to Article 2.1.1: An anti-doping rule violation is committed under this Article without regard to an Athlete’s Fault. This rule has been referred to in various CAS decisions as “Strict Liability”. An Athlete’s Fault is taken into consideration in determining the Consequences of this anti-doping rule violation under Article 10. This principle has consistently been upheld by CAS.]

2.1.2 Sufficient proof of an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.1 is established by any of the following: presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in the Athlete’s A Sample where the Athlete waives analysis of the B Sample and the B Sample is not analyzed; or, where the Athlete’s B Sample is analyzed and the analysis of the Athlete’s B Sample confirms the presence of the Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers found in the Athlete’s A Sample; or, where the Athlete’s B Sample is split into two bottles and the analysis of the second bottle confirms the presence of the Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers found in the first bottle.

[Comment to Article 2.1.2: The Anti-Doping Organization with results management responsibility may, at its discretion, choose to have the B Sample analyzed even if the Athlete does not request the analysis of the B Sample.]

2.1.3 Excepting those substances for which a quantitative threshold is specifically identified in the Prohibited List, the presence of any quantity of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in an Athlete’s Sample shall constitute an anti-doping rule violation.

2.1.4 As an exception to the general rule of Article 2.1, the Prohibited List or International Standards may establish special criteria for the evaluation of Prohibited Substances that can also be produced endogenously.

2.2 Use or Attempted Use by an Athlete of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method

[Comment to Article 2.2: It has always been the case that Use or Attempted Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method may be established by any reliable means. As noted in the Comment to Article 3.2, unlike the proof required to establish an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.1, Use or Attempted Use may also be established by other reliable means such as admissions by the Athlete, witness statements, documentary evidence, conclusions drawn from longitudinal profiling, including data collected as part of the Athlete Biological Passport, or other analytical information which does not otherwise satisfy all the requirements to establish “Presence” of a Prohibited Substance under Article 2.1. For example, Use may be established based upon reliable analytical data from the analysis of an A Sample (without confirmation from an analysis of a B Sample) or from the analysis of a B Sample alone where the Anti-Doping Organization provides a satisfactory explanation for the lack of confirmation in the other Sample.]

2.2.1 It is each Athlete’s personal duty to ensure that no Prohibited Substance enters his or her body and that no Prohibited Method is Used. Accordingly, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, negligence or knowing Use on the Athlete’s part be demonstrated in order to establish an anti-doping rule violation for Use of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method.

2.2.2 The success or failure of the Use or Attempted Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method is not material. It is sufficient that the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method was Used or Attempted to be Used for an anti-doping rule violation to be committed.

[Comment to Article 2.2.2: Demonstrating the “Attempted Use” of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method requires proof of intent on the Athlete’s part. The fact that intent may be required to prove this particular anti-doping rule violation does not undermine the Strict Liability principle established for violations of Article 2.1 and violations of Article 2.2 in respect of Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.

An Athlete’s “Use” of a Prohibited Substance constitutes an anti-doping rule violation unless such substance is not prohibited Out-of-Competition and the Athlete’s Use takes place Out-of-Competition. (However, the presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in a Sample collected In-Competition is a violation of Article 2.1 regardless of when that substance might have been administered).]

2.3 Evading, Refusing or Failing to Submit to Sample Collection

Evading Sample collection, or without compelling justification refusing or failing to submit to Sample collection after notification as authorized in these Anti-Doping Rules or other applicable anti-doping rules.

[Comment to Article 2.3: For example, it would be an anti-doping rule violation of “evading Sample collection” if it were established that an Athlete was deliberately avoiding a Doping Control official to evade notification or Testing. A violation of “failing to submit to Sample collection” may be based on either intentional or negligent conduct of the Athlete, while “evading” or “refusing” Sample collection contemplates intentional conduct by the Athlete.]

2.4 Whereabouts Failures

Any combination of three missed tests and/or filing failures, as defined in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, within a twelve-month period by an Athlete in a Registered Testing Pool.

2.5 Tampering or Attempted Tampering with any part of Doping Control

Conduct which subverts the Doping Control process but which would not otherwise be included in the definition of Prohibited Methods. Tampering shall include, without limitation, intentionally interfering or attempting to interfere with a Doping Control official, providing fraudulent information to an Anti-Doping Organization, or intimidating or attempting to intimidate a potential witness.

[Comment to Article 2.5: For example, this Article would prohibit altering identification numbers on a Doping Control form during Testing, breaking the B bottle at the time of B Sample analysis, or altering a Sample by the addition of a foreign substance. Offensive conduct towards a Doping Control official or other Person involved in Doping Control which does not otherwise constitute Tampering shall be addressed in the disciplinary rules of sport organizations.]

2.6 Possession of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method

2.6.1 Possession by an Athlete In-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method, or Possession by an Athlete Out-of-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method which is prohibited Out-of-Competition unless the Athlete establishes that the Possession is consistent with a Therapeutic Use Exemption (“TUE”) granted in accordance with Article 4.4 or other acceptable justification.

2.6.2 Possession by an Athlete Support Person In-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method, or Possession by an Athlete Support Person Out-of-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method which is prohibited Out-of-Competition in connection with an Athlete, Competition or training, unless the Athlete Support Person establishes that the Possession is consistent with a TUE granted to an Athlete in accordance with Article 4.4 or other acceptable justification.

[Comment to Articles 2.6.1 and 2.6.2: Acceptable justification would not include, for example, buying or Possessing a Prohibited Substance for purposes of giving it to a friend or relative, except under justifiable medical circumstances where that Person had a physician’s prescription, e.g., buying Insulin for a diabetic child.]

[Comment to Article 2.6.2: Acceptable justification would include, for example, a team doctor carrying Prohibited Substances for dealing with acute and emergency situations.]

2.7 Trafficking or Attempted Trafficking in any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method

2.8 Administration or Attempted Administration to any Athlete In-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method, or Administration or Attempted Administration to any Athlete Out-of-Competition of any Prohibited Substance or any Prohibited Method that is prohibited Out-of-Competition

2.9 Complicity

Assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, conspiring, covering up or any other type of intentional complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation, Attempted anti-doping rule violation or violation of Article 10.12.1 by another Person.

2.10 Prohibited Association

Association by an Athlete or other Person subject to the authority of an Anti-Doping Organization in a professional or sport-related capacity with any Athlete Support Person who:

2.10.1 If subject to the authority of an Anti-Doping Organization, is serving a period of Ineligibility; or

2.10.2 If not subject to the authority of an Anti-Doping Organization and where Ineligibility has not been addressed in a results management process pursuant to the Code, has been convicted or found in a criminal, disciplinary or professional proceeding to have engaged in conduct which would have constituted a violation of anti-doping rules if Code-compliant rules had been applicable to such Person. The disqualifying status of such Person shall be in force for the longer of six years from the criminal, professional or disciplinary decision or the duration of the criminal, disciplinary or professional sanction imposed; or

2.10.3 Is serving as a front or intermediary for an individual described in Article 2.10.1 or 2.10.2.

In order for this provision to apply, it is necessary that the Athlete or other Person has previously been advised in writing by an Anti-Doping Organization with jurisdiction over the Athlete or other Person, or by WADA, of the Athlete Support Person’s disqualifying status and the potential Consequence of prohibited association and that the Athlete or other Person can reasonably avoid the association. The Anti-Doping Organization shall also use reasonable efforts to advise the Athlete Support Person who is the subject of the notice to the Athlete or other Person that the Athlete Support Person may, within 15 days, come forward to the Anti-Doping Organization to explain that the criteria described in Articles 2.10.1 and 2.10.2 do not apply to him or her. (Notwithstanding Article 17, this Article applies even when the Athlete Support Person’s disqualifying conduct occurred prior to the effective date provided in Article 20.7.)

The burden shall be on the Athlete or other Person to establish that any association with Athlete Support Personnel described in Article 2.10.1 or 2.10.2 is not in a professional or sport-related capacity.

Anti-Doping Organizations that are aware of Athlete Support Personnel who meet the criteria described in Article 2.10.1, 2.10.2, or 2.10.3 shall submit that information to WADA.

[Comment to Article 2.10: Athletes and other Persons must not work with coaches, trainers, physicians or other Athlete Support Personnel who are Ineligible on account of an anti-doping rule violation or who have been criminally convicted or professionally disciplined in relation to doping. Some examples of the types of association which are prohibited include: obtaining training, strategy, technique, nutrition or medical advice; obtaining therapy, treatment or prescriptions; providing any bodily products for analysis; or allowing the Athlete Support Person to serve as an agent or representative. Prohibited association need not involve any form of compensation.]

ARTICLE 3 PROOF OF DOPING

3.1 Burdens and Standards of Proof

WBSC shall have the burden of establishing that an anti-doping rule violation has occurred. The standard of proof shall be whether WBSC has established an anti-doping rule violation to the comfortable satisfaction of the hearing panel bearing in mind the seriousness of the allegation which is made. This standard of proof in all cases is greater than a mere balance of probability but less than proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Where these Anti-Doping Rules place the burden of proof upon the Athlete or other Person alleged to have committed an anti-doping rule violation to rebut a presumption or establish specified facts or circumstances, the standard of proof shall be by a balance of probability.

[Comment to Article 3.1: This standard of proof required to be met by WBSC is comparable to the standard which is applied in most countries to cases involving professional misconduct.]

3.2 Methods of Establishing Facts and Presumptions

Facts related to anti-doping rule violations may be established by any reliable means, including admissions. The following rules of proof shall be applicable in doping cases:

[Comment to Article 3.2: For example, WBSC may establish an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.2 based on the Athlete’s admissions, the credible testimony of third Persons, reliable documentary evidence, reliable analytical data from either an A or B Sample as provided in the Comments to Article 2.2, or conclusions drawn from the profile of a series of the Athlete’s blood or urine Samples, such as data from the Athlete Biological Passport.]

3.2.1 Analytical methods or decision limits approved by WADA after consultation within the relevant scientific community and which have been the subject of peer review are presumed to be scientifically valid. Any Athlete or other Person seeking to rebut this presumption of scientific validity shall, as a condition precedent to any such challenge, first notify WADA of the challenge and the basis of the challenge. CAS on its own initiative may also inform WADA of any such challenge. At WADA’s request, the CAS panel shall appoint an appropriate scientific expert to assist the panel in its evaluation of the challenge. Within 10 days of WADA’s receipt of such notice, and WADA’s receipt of the CAS file, WADA shall also have the right to intervene as a party, appear amicus curiae, or otherwise provide evidence in such proceeding.

3.2.2 WADA-accredited laboratories, and other laboratories approved by WADA, are presumed to have conducted Sample analysis and custodial procedures in accordance with the International Standard for Laboratories. The Athlete or other Person may rebut this presumption by establishing that a departure from the International Standard for Laboratories occurred which could reasonably have caused the Adverse Analytical Finding. If the Athlete or other Person rebuts the preceding presumption by showing that a departure from the International Standard for Laboratories occurred which could reasonably have caused the Adverse Analytical Finding, then WBSC shall have the burden to establish that such departure did not cause the Adverse Analytical Finding.

[Comment to Article 3.2.2: The burden is on the Athlete or other Person to establish, by a balance of probability, a departure from the International Standard for Laboratories that could reasonably have caused the Adverse Analytical Finding. If the Athlete or other Person does so, the burden shifts to WBSC to prove to the comfortable satisfaction of the hearing panel that the departure did not cause the Adverse Analytical Finding.]

3.2.3 Departures from any other International Standard or other anti-doping rule or policy set forth in the Code or these Anti-Doping Rules which did not cause an Adverse Analytical Finding or other anti-doping rule violation shall not invalidate such evidence or results. If the Athlete or other Person establishes a departure from another International Standard or other anti-doping rule or policy which could reasonably have caused an anti-doping rule violation based on an Adverse Analytical Finding or other anti-doping rule violation, then WBSC shall have the burden to establish that such departure did not cause the Adverse Analytical Finding or the factual basis for the anti-doping rule violation.

3.2.4 The facts established by a decision of a court or professional disciplinary tribunal of competent jurisdiction which is not the subject of a pending appeal shall be irrebuttable evidence against the Athlete or other Person to whom the decision pertained of those facts unless the Athlete or other Person establishes that the decision violated principles of natural justice.

3.2.5 The hearing panel in a hearing on an anti-doping rule violation may draw an inference adverse to the Athlete or other Person who is asserted to have committed an anti-doping rule violation based on the Athlete’s or other Person’s refusal, after a request made in a reasonable time in advance of the hearing, to appear at the hearing (either in person or telephonically as directed by the hearing panel) and to answer questions from the hearing panel or WBSC.

ARTICLE 4 THE PROHIBITED LIST

4.1 Incorporation of the Prohibited List

These Anti-Doping Rules incorporate the Prohibited List, which is published and revised by WADA as described in Article 4.1 of the Code.

[Comment to Article 4.1: The current Prohibited List is available on WADA’s website at www.wada-ama.org.]

4.2 Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods Identified on the Prohibited List

4.2.1 Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods

Unless provided otherwise in the Prohibited List and/or a revision, the Prohibited List and revisions shall go into effect under these Anti-Doping Rules three months after publication by WADA, without requiring any further action by WBSC or its National Federations. All Athletes and other Persons shall be bound by the Prohibited List, and any revisions thereto, from the date they go into effect, without further formality. It is the responsibility of all Athletes and other Persons to familiarize themselves with the most up-to-date version of the Prohibited List and all revisions thereto.

4.2.2 Specified Substances

For purposes of the application of Article 10, all Prohibited Substances shall be Specified Substances except substances in the classes of anabolic agents and hormones and those stimulants and hormone antagonists and modulators so identified on the Prohibited List. The category of Specified Substances shall not include Prohibited Methods.

[Comment to Article 4.2.2: The Specified Substances identified in Article 4.2.2 should not in any way be considered less important or less dangerous than other doping substances. Rather, they are simply substances which are more likely to have been consumed by an Athlete for a purpose other than the enhancement of sport performance.]

4.3 WADA’s Determination of the Prohibited List

WADA’s determination of the Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods that will be included on the Prohibited List, the classification of substances into categories on the Prohibited List, and the classification of a substance as prohibited at all times or In-Competition only, is final and shall not be subject to challenge by an Athlete or other Person based on an argument that the substance or method was not a masking agent or did not have the potential to enhance performance, represent a health risk or violate the spirit of sport.

4.4 Therapeutic Use Exemptions (“TUEs”)

4.4.1 The presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers, and/or the Use or Attempted Use, Possession or Administration or Attempted Administration of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method, shall not be considered an anti-doping rule violation if it is consistent with the provisions of a TUE granted in accordance with the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions.

4.4.2 If an International-Level Athlete is using a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method for therapeutic reasons:

4.4.2.1 Where the Athlete already has a TUE granted by his or her National Anti-Doping Organization for the substance or method in question, that TUE is automatically valid for international-level Competition provided that such TUE decision has been reported in accordance with Article 5.4 of the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions and therefore is available for review by WADA.

[Comment to Article 4.4.2.1: Further to Articles 5.6 and 7.1(a) of the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, WBSC may publish notice on its website [insert website address] that it will automatically recognize TUE decisions (or categories of such decisions, e.g., as to particular substances or methods) made by National Anti-Doping Organizations. If an Athlete’s TUE falls into a category of automatically recognized TUEs, then he/she does not need to apply to WBSC for recognition of that TUE.

If WBSC refuses to recognize a TUE granted by a National Anti-Doping Organization only because medical records or other information are missing that are needed to demonstrate satisfaction of the criteria in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, the matter should not be referred to WADA. Instead, the file should be completed and re-submitted to WBSC.]

4.4.2.2 If the Athlete does not already have a TUE granted by his/her National Anti-Doping Organization for the substance or method in question, the Athlete must apply directly to WBSC for a TUE in accordance with the process set out in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions using the form posted on WBSC website at www.wbsc.co . If WBSC denies the Athlete’s application, it must notify the Athlete promptly, with reasons. If WBSC grants the Athlete’s application, it shall notify not only the Athlete but also his/her National Anti-Doping Organization. If the National Anti-Doping Organization considers that the TUE granted by WBSC does not meet the criteria set out in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, it has 21 days from such notification to refer the matter to WADA for review in accordance with Article 4.4.6. If the National Anti-Doping Organization refers the matter to WADA for review, the TUE granted by WBSC remains valid for international-level Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing (but is not valid for national-level Competition) pending WADA’s decision. If the National Anti-Doping Organization does not refer the matter to WADA for review, the TUE granted by WBSC becomes valid for national-level Competition as well when the 21-day review deadline expires.

[Comment to Article 4.4.2: WBSC may agree with a National Anti-Doping Organization that the National Anti-Doping Organization will consider TUE applications on behalf of WBSC.]

4.4.3 If WBSC chooses to test an Athlete who is not an International-Level Athlete, WBSC shall recognize a TUE granted to that Athlete by his or her National Anti-Doping Organization. If WBSC chooses to test an Athlete who is not an International-Level or a National-Level Athlete, WBSC shall permit that Athlete to apply for a retroactive TUE for any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method that he/she is using for therapeutic reasons.

4.4.4 An application to WBSC for grant of a TUE should be made as soon as the need arises. For substances prohibited In-Competition only, the Athlete should apply for a TUE at least 30 days before the Athlete’s next Competition unless it is an emergency or exceptional situation.
An Athlete may only be granted retroactive approval for his/her Therapeutic Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method (i.e., a retroactive TUE) if:
a. Emergency treatment or treatment of an acute medical condition was
necessary; or
b. Due to other exceptional circumstances, there was insufficient time or opportunity for the Athlete to submit, or for the TUEC to consider, an
application for the TUE prior to Sample collection; or
c. The applicable rules required the Athlete or permitted the Athlete (see Code Article 4.4.5) to apply for a retroactive TUE; or
d. It is agreed, by WADA and by the Anti-Doping Organization to whom the application for a retroactive TUE is or would be made, that fairness
requires the grant of a retroactive TUE.
WBSC shall appoint a standing panel of at least 3 physicians to consider applications for the grant or recognition of TUEs (the “TUE Committee”). Upon WBSC’s receipt of a TUE request, the WBSC’s Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate shall appoint the TUE Committee which will consider such request. The TUE Committee shall promptly evaluate and decide upon the application in accordance with the relevant provisions of the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions and the eventual specific WBSC’s protocols posted on its website. Subject to Article 4.4.6 of these Rules, its decision shall be the final decision of WBSC, and shall be reported to WADA and other relevant Anti-Doping Organizations, including the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization, through ADAMS, in accordance with the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions.

[Comment to Article 4.4.4: The submission of false or misleadingly incomplete information in support of a TUE application (including but not limited to the failure to advise of the unsuccessful outcome of a prior application to another Anti-Doping Organization for such a TUE) may result in a charge of Tampering or Attempted Tampering under Article 2.5.

An Athlete should not assume that his/her application for grant or recognition of a TUE (or for renewal of a TUE) will be granted. Any Use or Possession or Administration of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method before an application has been granted is entirely at the Athlete’s own risk.]

4.4.5 Expiration, Cancellation, Withdrawal or Reversal of a TUE

4.4.5.1 A TUE granted pursuant to these Anti-Doping Rules: (a) shall expire automatically at the end of any term for which it was granted, without the need for any further notice or other formality; (b) may be cancelled if the Athlete does not promptly comply with any requirements or conditions imposed by the TUE Committee upon grant of the TUE; (c) may be withdrawn by the TUE Committee if it is subsequently determined that the criteria for grant of a TUE are not in fact met; or (d) may be reversed on review by WADA or on appeal.

4.4.5.2 In such event, the Athlete shall not be subject to any Consequences based on his/her Use or Possession or Administration of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method in question in accordance with the TUE prior to the effective date of expiry, cancellation, withdrawal or reversal of the TUE. The review pursuant to Article 7.2 of any subsequent Adverse Analytical Finding shall include consideration of whether such finding is consistent with Use of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method prior to that date, in which event no anti-doping rule violation shall be asserted.

4.4.6 Reviews and Appeals of TUE Decisions

4.4.6.1 WBSCWADA shall review any decision by WBSC to grant a TUE that is referred to WADA by the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization. WADA may review any other TUE decisions at any time, whether upon request by those affected or on its own initiative. If the TUE decision being reviewed meets the criteria set out in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, WADA will not interfere with it. If the TUE decision does not meet those criteria, WADA will reverse it.

4.4.6.2 Any TUE decision by WBSC (or by a National Anti-Doping Organization where it has agreed to consider the application on behalf of WBSC) that is not reviewed by WADA, or that is reviewed by WADA but is not reversed upon review, may be appealed by the Athlete and/or the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization exclusively to CAS, in accordance with Article 13.

[Comment to Article 4.4.6.2: In such cases, the decision being appealed is the WBSC’s TUE decision, not WADA’s decision not to review the TUE decision or (having reviewed it) not to reverse the TUE decision. However, the deadline to appeal the TUE decision does not begin to run until the date that WADA communicates its decision. In any event, whether the decision has been reviewed by WADA or not, WADA shall be given notice of the appeal so that it may participate if it sees fit.]

4.4.6.3 A decision by WADA to reverse a TUE decision may be appealed by the Athlete, the National Anti-Doping Organization and/or WBSC exclusively to CAS, in accordance with Article 13.

4.4.6.4 A failure to take action within a reasonable time on a properly submitted application for grant or recognition of a TUE or for review of a TUE decision shall be considered a denial of the application.

ARTICLE 5 TESTING AND INVESTIGATIONS

5.1 Purpose of Testing and Investigations

Testing and investigations shall only be undertaken for anti-doping purposes. They shall be conducted in conformity with the provisions of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations and the eventual specific protocols of WBSC supplementing that International Standard.

5.1.1 Testing shall be undertaken to obtain analytical evidence as to the Athlete’s compliance (or non-compliance) with the strict Code prohibition on the presence/Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method. Test distribution planning, Testing, post-Testing activity and all related activities conducted by WBSC shall be in conformity with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. WBSC shall determine the number of finishing placement tests, random tests and target tests to be performed, in accordance with the criteria established by the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. All provisions of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations shall apply automatically in respect of all such Testing.

5.1.2 Investigations shall be undertaken:

5.1.2.1 in relation to Atypical Findings, Atypical Passport Findings and Adverse Passport Findings, in accordance with Articles 7.4 and 7.5 respectively, gathering intelligence or evidence (including, in particular, analytical evidence) in order to determine whether an anti-doping rule violation has occurred under Article 2.1 and/or Article 2.2; and

5.1.2.2 in relation to other indications of potential anti-doping rule violations, in accordance with Articles 7.6 and 7.7, gathering intelligence or evidence (including, in particular, non-analytical evidence) in order to determine whether an anti-doping rule violation has occurred under any of Articles 2.2 to 2.10.

5.1.3 WBSC may obtain, assess and process anti-doping intelligence from all available sources, to inform the development of an effective, intelligent and proportionate test distribution plan, to plan Target Testing, and/or to form the basis of an investigation into a possible anti-doping rule violation(s).

5.2 Authority to conduct Testing

5.2.1 Subject to the jurisdictional limitations for Event Testing set out in Article 5.3 of the Code, WBSC shall have In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing authority over all of the Athletes specified in the Introduction to these Anti-Doping Rules (under the heading “Scope”).

5.2.2 WBSC may require any Athlete over whom it has Testing authority (including any Athlete serving a period of Ineligibility) to provide a Sample at any time and at any place.

[Comment to Article 5.2.2: Unless the Athlete has identified a 60-minute time-slot for Testing between the hours of 11pm and 6am, or has otherwise consented to Testing during that period, WBSC will not test an Athlete during that period unless it has a serious and specific suspicion that the Athlete may be engaged in doping. A challenge to whether WBSC had sufficient suspicion for Testing in that period shall not be a defense to an anti-doping rule violation based on such test or attempted test.]
5.2.3 WADA shall have In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing authority as set out in Article 20.7.8 of the Code.

5.2.4 If WBSC delegates or contracts any part of Testing to a National Anti-Doping Organization (directly or through a National Federation), that National Anti-Doping Organization may collect additional Samples or direct the laboratory to perform additional types of analysis at the National Anti-Doping Organization’s expense. If additional Samples are collected or additional types of analysis are performed, WBSC shall be notified.

5.3 Event Testing

5.3.1 Except as provided in Article 5.3 of the Code, only a single organization should be responsible for initiating and directing Testing at Event Venues during an Event Period. At International Events, the collection of Samples shall be initiated and directed by WBSC (or any other international organization which is the ruling body for the Event). At the request of WBSC (or any other international organization which is the ruling body for an Event), any Testing during the Event Period outside of the Event Venues shall be coordinated with WBSC (or the relevant ruling body of the Event).

5.3.2 If an Anti-Doping Organization which would otherwise have Testing authority but is not responsible for initiating and directing Testing at an Event desires to conduct Testing of Athletes at the Event Venues during the Event Period, the Anti-Doping Organization shall first confer with WBSC (or any other international organization which is the ruling body of the Event) to obtain permission to conduct and coordinate such Testing. If the Anti-Doping Organization is not satisfied with the response from WBSC (or any other international organization which is the ruling body of the Event), the Anti-Doping Organization may ask WADA for permission to conduct Testing and to determine how to coordinate such Testing, in accordance with the procedures set out in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. WADA shall not grant approval for such Testing before consulting with and informing WBSC (or any other international organization which is the ruling body for the Event). WADA’s decision shall be final and not subject to appeal. Unless otherwise provided in the authorization to conduct Testing, such tests shall be considered Out-of-Competition tests. Results management for any such test shall be the responsibility of the Anti-Doping Organization initiating the test unless provided otherwise in the rules of the ruling body of the Event.

5.3.3 Every organiser of WBSC’s International Competitions or Events, (the list of those Competitions or Events will be published each year on the WBSC’s website) must plan for Doping Controls to take place and must ensure that, during the Event, the necessary facilities, Sample collection materials and Doping Control personnel are available, and the Testing procedures are correctly applied in accordance with the International Standard for Testing and Investigation and conducted by qualified persons so authorized.

5.3.4 At WBSC International Competitions or Events, where WBSC is the ruling body, the WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate shall be responsible for co-ordinating all Testing, in accordance with Article 5.3 of the Code.

5.3.5 The overall costs of Testing and Sample analysis is the responsibility of the organizing committee and/or the National Federation of the country in which the Competition or Event is taking place. WBSC may at its own discretion decide to take responsibility for those costs.

5.4 Test Distribution Planning

Consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, and in coordination with other Anti-Doping Organizations conducting Testing on the same Athletes, WBSC shall develop and implement an effective, intelligent and proportionate test distribution plan that prioritizes appropriately between disciplines, categories of Athletes, types of Testing, types of Samples collected, and types of Sample analysis, all in compliance with the requirements of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. WBSC shall provide WADA upon request with a copy of its current test distribution plan.
WBSC shall ensure that Athlete Support Personnel and/or any other Person with a conflict of interest are not involved in test distribution plan for their Athletes or in the process of selection of Athletes for Testing.

5.5 Coordination of Testing

Where reasonably feasible, Testing shall be coordinated through ADAMS or another system approved by WADA in order to maximize the effectiveness of the combined Testing effort and to avoid unnecessary repetitive Testing.

5.6 Athlete Whereabouts Information

5.6.1 WBSC may identify a Registered Testing Pool of those Athletes who are required to comply with the whereabouts requirements of Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, and shall make available through ADAMS, a list which identifies those Athletes included in its Registered Testing Pool either by name or by clearly defined, specific criteria. WBSC shall coordinate with National Anti-Doping Organizations the identification of such Athletes and the collection of their whereabouts information. WBSC shall review and update as necessary its criteria for including Athletes in its Registered Testing Pool, and shall revise the membership of its Registered Testing Pool from time to time as appropriate in accordance with the set criteria. Athletes shall be notified before they are included in a Registered Testing Pool and when they are removed from that pool. Each Athlete in the Registered Testing Pool shall do the following, in each case in accordance with Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations: (a) advise WBSC of his/her whereabouts on a quarterly basis; (b) update that information as necessary so that it remains accurate and complete at all times; and (c) make him/herself available for Testing at such whereabouts.

5.6.2 For purposes of Article 2.4, an Athlete’s failure to comply with the requirements of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations shall be deemed a filing failure or a missed test (as defined in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations) where the conditions set forth in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations for declaring a filing failure or missed test are met.

5.6.3 An Athlete in WBSC’s Registered Testing Pool shall continue to be subject to the obligation to comply with the whereabouts requirements of Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations unless and until (a) the Athlete gives written notice to WBSC that he/she has retired or (b) WBSC has informed him or her that he/she no longer satisfies the criteria for inclusion in WBSC’s Registered Testing Pool.

5.6.4 Whereabouts information relating to an Athlete shall be shared (through ADAMS) with WADA and other Anti-Doping Organizations having authority to test that Athlete, shall be maintained in strict confidence at all times, shall be used exclusively for the purposes set out in Article 5.6 of the Code, and shall be destroyed in accordance with the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information once it is no longer relevant for these purposes.

5.6.5 Each National Federation shall use its best efforts to ensure that Athletes in the WBSC’s Registered Testing Pool submit whereabouts information as required. However, the ultimate responsibility for providing whereabouts information rests with each Athlete. Every National Federation shall report to WBSC the relevant contact details (names, postal and email addresses etc.) of all Athletes identified to be part of the Registered Testing Pool established by WBSC.

5.6.6. Testing Pool of Athletes/National Teams

WBSC may identify a Testing Pool of those Athletes/National Teams who are required to comply with the WBSC whereabouts requirements.

Athletes/National Teams shall be notified before they are included in the Testing Pool and when they are removed from that pool. Each Athlete/National Team in the Testing Pool shall provide to WBSC at least the following information:
a) An up-to-date mailing and e-mail address,
b) Training whereabouts (including usual training venue/s addresses and usual timing of the training) and
c) All national team activities (including training, camps and matches with accurate schedules and addresses)

The Athletes/National Teams included in the Testing Pool shall provide the information on a regular basis, by the relevant deadline communicated by the WBSC. The collecting of whereabouts shall be coordinated with the National Federation and the National Anti-Doping Organisation and the WBSC may delegate the responsibility to collect Testing Pool Athlete Whereabouts Information to its National Federations.
Every National Federation shall report to WBSC the relevant contact details (names, postal and email addresses etc.) of all Athletes identified to be part of the Testing Pool established by WBSC.
More information about WBSC Testing Pools and the current whereabouts requirements can be found on the WBSC website.

5.7 Selection of Athletes to be tested

5.7.1 At its International Competitions or Events, WBSC shall determine the number of finishing tests, random tests and target tests to be performed.

5.7.2 In order to ensure that Testing is conducted on a No Advance Notice Testing basis, the Athlete selection decisions shall only disclosed in advance of Testing to those who need to know in order for such Testing to be conducted.

5.8 In Competition Testing

5.8.1 Upon selection of an Athlete for Doping Control during a Competition, the following procedures shall be followed.

5.8.2 The official responsible for notifying the Athlete for Doping Control (whether the Doping Control Officer (DCO) or Chaperone) shall write the name of the Athlete on the official notification form and present it to the Athlete, as discreetly as possible, immediately after the Athlete has completed his Competition. The Athlete shall sign to confirm receipt of the notification and retain a copy. The time of signing shall be recorded on the form. The Athlete must stay in view of the Chaperone until reporting to the Doping Control Station.

5.8.3 If an Athlete refuses to sign the notification form, the Chaperone shall immediately report this to the Doping Control Officer who shall make every effort to inform the Athlete of his obligation to undergo Doping Control and the consequences of his not submitting himself to the control. If the Athlete fails or refuses to sign this notice or fails to report to the Doping Control Station as required, the Athlete shall be deemed to have refused to submit to Doping Control for the purpose of Articles 2.3 and 10.3.1 of these rules. Even if the Athlete indicates reluctance to report to the Doping Control Station, the Chaperone shall keep the Athlete in view until there is no question that the Athlete has refused to submit to Doping Control.

5.8.4 The Athlete is required to report immediately to the Doping Control Station, unless there is a valid reason for a delay, as determined in accordance with Article 5.8.8.

5.8.5 The Athlete shall be entitled to be accompanied to the Doping Control Station by (i) a Competition-accredited representative from his National Federation, and (ii) an interpreter if required.

5.8.6 Minor Athletes shall be entitled to be accompanied by a representative, but the representative cannot directly observe the passing of the urine Sample unless requested to do so by the Minor.

5.8.7 The Athlete must show a valid identification document at the Doping Control Station. The Athlete’s time of arrival at the Doping Control Station shall be recorded on the doping control form.

5.8.8 The Athlete has the right to ask the DCO or Chaperone for permission to delay reporting to the Doping Control Station and/or to leave the Doping Control Station temporarily after arrival, but the request may be granted only if the Athlete can be continuously chaperoned and kept under direct observation during the delay, and if the request relates to the following activities:
a) Participation in a presentation ceremony;
b) Fulfilment of media commitments;
c) Competing in further Competitions;
d) Performing a warm down;
e) Obtaining necessary medical treatment;
f) Locating a representative and/or interpreter;
g) Obtaining photo identification; or
h) Any other reasonable circumstances as determined by the DCO, taking into account any instructions of WBSC or other Testing Authority with jurisdiction at an Event.

5.8.9 Only the following Persons may be present in the Doping Control Station:
a) The Doping Control Officer/s and the Chaperone/s.
b) Staff assigned to the station
c) Authorized interpreters
d) The Athletes selected for Doping Control and their representative
e) The WADA’s Independent Observer

The news media shall not be admitted to the Doping Control Station.
The doors of the station must not be left open.
No photography or filming shall be permitted in the Doping Control Station during the hours of operation.

Out-of-Competition Testing

5.8.10 Out-Of-Competition Testing may be conducted by WBSC, WADA or a National Anti-Doping Organization (or agencies appointed by them) at any time or location in any member country. This Testing shall be carried out without any advance notice to the Athlete or his National Federation. Every Athlete affiliated with a National Federation is obliged to undergo Out-of-Competition Testing as decided by the WBSC, WADA or the National Anti-Doping Organization.

5.9 Procedures

5.9.1 The Testing procedure shall be in conformity with the requirements of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. The article below provides information on procedure for the collection of Samples under the jurisdiction of WBSC at WBSC Competitions and Event and also for Out-of-Competition Testing. In the event of any conflict with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, the International Standard for Testing and Investigations shall prevail.

5.9.2 Each Athlete asked to provide a Sample shall also provide information on an official Doping Control Form. The Athlete’s name, post and email addresses, his country, telephone numbers, the code number of the Sample and the event identification will be entered into the form. The Athlete shall declare any medication and nutritional supplements that he/she has used in the preceding seven (7) days. The form shall also provide the names of the people present at the Doping Control Station involved with the obtaining of the Sample, including the Doping Control Officer (DCO) in charge of the station. Any irregularities must be registered on the form. The form shall include at least four copies for distribution as follows:
a) a copy to be retained by the DCO for forwarding to the WBSC Office by the day after the Competition;
b) a copy to be given to the Athlete;
c) a special copy to be sent to the Laboratory which is to conduct the analysis – this laboratory copy must be so designed that it does not contain any information which could identify the Athlete who provided the Sample;
d) an extra copy, for distribution as the WBSC deems appropriate and in accordance with the International Standard for Protection of Privacy and Personal Information.

5.9.3 The Athlete shall select a sealed collection vessel from a number of such vessels, visually check that it is empty and clean, and proceed to provide the required amount of urine established in the International Standard for Testing and Investigation under the direct supervision of, and within the view of, the DCO or appropriate official (Chaperone/s) who shall be of the same gender as the Athlete.
Sample Collection Equipment systems shall, at a minimum, meet the following criteria.
They shall:
a) Have a unique numbering system incorporated into all bottles, containers, tubes or other items used to seal the Sample;
b) Have a sealing system that is tamper-evident;
c) Ensure the identity of the Athlete is not evident from the equipment itself; and
d) Ensure that all equipment is clean and sealed prior to use by the Athlete.
To ensure authenticity of the Sample, the DCO and/or Chaperone will require such disrobing as is necessary to confirm the urine is produced by the Athlete. No one other than the Athlete and the person authorized by these rules shall be present when the urine Sample is collected. Blood Testing may be performed prior to, after or instead of a urine Sample.

5.9.4 The Athlete shall remain in the Doping Control Station until he or she has fulfilled the duty to pass an adequate quantity of urine. If the Athlete is unable to provide the required amount, the urine which is collected shall be sealed in a container and the seal shall be broken when the Athlete is ready to provide more urine. The Athlete may be required to retain custody of the sealed container while waiting to provide more urine.

5.9.5 When the Athlete has provided the required volume of urine, he or she shall select from a number of such kits a sealed urine control kit, containing two containers for Samples A and B. The Athlete shall check to be sure the containers are empty and clean.

5.9.6 The Athlete, or his representative, shall pour approximately two-thirds of the urine from the collection vessel into the A bottle and one-third into the B bottle which are then sealed as provided for in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. Having closed both bottles the Athlete shall check that no leakage can occur. The DCO may, with permission of the Athlete, assist the Athlete with the procedures in this article. The Athlete must also verify at each step in the Doping Control procedure that each bottle has the same code and that this is the same code as entered on the Doping Control Form.

5.9.7 The DCO should continue to collect additional Samples until the requirement for Suitable Specific Gravity for Analysis is met, or until the DCO determines that there are exceptional circumstances which mean that for logistical reasons it is impossible to continue with the Sample Collection Session. Such exceptional circumstances shall be documented accordingly by the DCO.

5.9.8 The Athlete shall certify, by signing the Doping Control Form (see art. 5.10.2), that the entire process has been performed in compliance with the procedures outlined above. The Athlete shall also record any irregularities or procedural deviations he/she identifies. Any irregularities or procedural deviations identified by the Athlete’s accredited representative (if present), the DCO, or station staff shall be recorded on the form. The form will also be signed by the Athlete’s accredited representative (if present).

5.9.9 The accumulation of Samples may take place over time before dispatch to the laboratory. During this time, the Samples must be kept secure. If there is prolonged delay in dispatching the Samples to the laboratory, storage in a cool, secure place is necessary to ensure no possible deterioration could occur. The DCO should detail and documenting the location where Samples are stored and who has custody of the Samples and/or is permitted access to the Samples.

5.9.10 At WBSC International Events, the National Federation and/or the Organizing Committee must ensure that a Doping Control Station reasonably separated from public activities with the following minimum requirements is set up for the event:
– one (1) private room (“Doping Control Station”) exclusively dedicated for use by the DCO and doping control personnel with one (1) table, two (2) chairs, pens and paper, and one (1) lockable refrigerator; and
– a waiting room/area with a suitable number of chairs as well as an appropriate amount of individually sealed, non-caffeinated and non-alcoholic beverages, which includes a mix of natural mineral water and soft drinks; and
– one (1) private, clean and equipped bathroom/toilet, adjacent or as near as possible to the Doping Control Station and waiting area.

5.9.11 The National Federation and/or the Organizing Committee must also ensure that at least one (1) staff member is designated who is able to act as point-of-contact and support for the Doping Control Officer/s (DCOs) and the Chaperone/s during the Doping Control mission, with the contact name and details of this staff member to be communicated to the WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate at least four (4) weeks prior to the starting date of the Event.
Prior to the Event, the WBSC Anti-Doping administrator and/or its delegate may communicate to the National Federation and/or the Organizing Committee a specific number of Chaperones. The National Federation and/or Organizing Committee shall accordingly be required to provide the number of Chaperones so requested.

5.10 Additional Procedures related to the collection of Samples while Out-Of-Competition.

5.10.1 When an Athlete has been selected for No Advance Notice Testing, the DCO will arrive unannounced at the Athlete’s training camp, accommodation or any other place where the Athlete may be found. The DCO shall show proof of identity and provide a copy of his letter of authority. The DCO shall also require proof of identity of the Athlete. The actual collection of the Sample shall be in accordance with the International Standard for Testing and Investigation.

5.10.2 As the DCO’s arrival is with No Advance Notice, he should give the Athlete reasonable time to complete any reasonable activity in which he is engaged under the observation of the DCO, but Testing should commence as soon as possible.

5.10.3 Each Athlete selected for Out-of-Competition Testing shall complete a Doping Control Form similar to the form described in article 5.10.1.

5.10.4 If the Athlete refuses to provide a urine Sample, the DCO shall note this on the Doping Control Form, sign his name on the form and ask the Athlete to sign the form. The DCO shall also note any other irregularities in the Doping Control process.

5.10.5 The nature of Out-of-Competition Doping Control requires that no prior warning is given to the Athlete. Every effort will be made by the DCO to collect the Sample speedily and efficiently with the minimum of interruption to the Athlete’s training, social or work arrangements. If there is an interruption, however, no Athlete may take action to gain compensation for any inconvenience or other loss incurred. Furthermore, any interruption for Testing shall not be a defense to an anti-doping rule violation based on such test or attempted test.

In the event that there is any conflict between this Article and the provisions of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, the International Standard for Testing and Investigations shall prevail.

5.11 Retired Athletes Returning to Competition

5.11.1 An Athlete in WBSC’s Registered Testing Pool who has given notice of retirement to WBSC may not resume competing in International Events or National Events until he/she has given WBSC written notice of his/her intent to resume competing and has made him/herself available for Testing for a period of six months before returning to Competition, including (if requested) complying with the whereabouts requirements of Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. WADA, in consultation with WBSC and the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization, may grant an exemption to the six-month written notice rule where the strict application of that rule would be manifestly unfair to an Athlete. This decision may be appealed under Article 13. Any competitive results obtained in violation of this Article 5.7.1 shall be Disqualified.

5.11.2 If an Athlete retires from sport while subject to a period of Ineligibility, the Athlete shall not resume competing in International Events or National Events until the Athlete has given six months prior written notice (or notice equivalent to the period of Ineligibility remaining as of the date the Athlete retired, if that period was longer than six months) to WBSC and to his/her National Anti-Doping Organization of his/her intent to resume competing and has made him/herself available for Testing for that notice period, including (if requested) complying with the whereabouts requirements of Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

5.11.3 An Athlete who is not in WBSC’s Registered Testing Pool who has given notice of retirement to WBSC may not resume competing unless he/she notifies WBSC and his/her National Anti-Doping Organization at least six months before he/she wishes to return to Competition and makes him/herself available for unannounced Out-of-Competition Testing, including (if requested) complying with the whereabouts requirements of Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, during the period before actual return to Competition.

5.11.4 In the case of an Athlete that resumes competing without respecting the six-month written notice, WBSC may sanction the Athlete under WBSC’s disciplinary rules/code of conduct. Notwithstanding the aforementioned, an Athlete who has retired from sport while subject to a period of Ineligibility but who resumes competing without respecting Article 5.11.2 of these Rules shall also be subject to the Consequences as described in Article 10.12 of these Rules.

5.12 Independent Observer Program

WBSC and the organizing committees for WBSC’s Events, as well as the National Federations and the organizing committees for National Events, shall authorize and facilitate the Independent Observer Program at such Events.

ARTICLE 6 ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES

Samples shall be analyzed in accordance with the following principles:

6.1 Use of Accredited and Approved Laboratories

For purposes of Article 2.1, Samples shall be analyzed only in laboratories accredited or otherwise approved by WADA. The choice of the WADA-accredited or WADA-approved laboratory used for the Sample analysis shall be determined exclusively by WBSC.

[Comment to Article 6.1: Violations of Article 2.1 may be established only by Sample analysis performed by a laboratory accredited or otherwise approved by WADA. Violations of other Articles may be established using analytical results from other laboratories so long as the results are reliable.]

6.2 Purpose of Analysis of Samples

6.2.1 Samples shall be analyzed to detect Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods and other substances as may be directed by WADA pursuant to the Monitoring Program described in Article 4.5 of the Code; or to assist WBSC in profiling relevant parameters in an Athlete’s urine, blood or other matrix, including DNA or genomic profiling; or for any other legitimate anti-doping purpose. Samples may be collected and stored for future analysis.

[Comment to Article 6.2.1: For example, relevant profile information could be used to direct Target Testing or to support an anti-doping rule violation proceeding under Article 2.2, or both.]

6.2.2 WBSC shall ask laboratories to analyze Samples in conformity with Article 6.4 of the Code and Article 4.7 of the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

6.3 Research on Samples

No Sample may be used for research without the Athlete’s written consent. Samples used for purposes other than Article 6.2 shall have any means of identification removed such that they cannot be traced back to a particular Athlete.

6.4 Standards for Sample Analysis and Reporting

Laboratories shall analyze Samples and report results in conformity with the International Standard for Laboratories. To ensure effective Testing, the Technical Document referenced at Article 5.4.1 of the Code will establish risk assessment-based Sample analysis menus appropriate for particular sports and sport disciplines, and laboratories shall analyze Samples in conformity with those menus, except as follows:

6.4.1 WBSC may request that laboratories analyze its Samples using more extensive menus than those described in the Technical Document.

6.4.2 WBSC may request that laboratories analyze its Samples using less extensive menus than those described in the Technical Document only if it has satisfied WADA that, because of the particular circumstances of its sport, as set out in its test distribution plan, less extensive analysis would be appropriate.

6.4.3 As provided in the International Standard for Laboratories, laboratories at their own initiative and expense may analyze Samples for Prohibited Substances or Prohibited Methods not included on the Sample analysis menu described in the Technical Document or specified by the Testing authority. Results from any such analysis shall be reported and have the same validity and consequence as any other analytical result.

[Comment to Article 6.4: The objective of this Article is to extend the principle of “intelligent Testing” to the Sample analysis menu so as to most effectively and efficiently detect doping. It is recognized that the resources available to fight doping are limited and that increasing the Sample analysis menu may, in some sports and countries, reduce the number of Samples which can be analyzed.]

6.5 Further Analysis of Samples

Any Sample may be stored and subsequently subjected to further analysis for the purposes set out in Article 6.2: (a) by WADA at any time; and/or (b) by WBSC at any time before both the A and B Sample analytical results (or A Sample result where B Sample analysis has been waived or will not be performed) have been communicated by WBSC to the Athlete as the asserted basis for an Article 2.1 anti-doping rule violation. Such further analysis of Samples shall conform with the requirements of the International Standard for Laboratories and the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

ARTICLE 7 RESULTS MANAGEMENT

7.1 Responsibility for Conducting Results Management

7.1.1 The circumstances in which WBSC shall take responsibility for conducting results management in respect of anti-doping rule violations involving Athletes and other Persons under its jurisdiction shall be determined by reference to and in accordance with Article 7 of the Code.

7.1.2 The WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate will conduct the review discussed in Articles 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6. The review prescribed in Article 7.7 should be conducted by a Doping Review Panel consisting of a Chair (who may be the WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate) and at least 2 other members with experience in anti-doping.

7.2 Review of Adverse Analytical Findings From Tests Initiated by WBSC

Results management in respect of the results of tests initiated by WBSC (including tests performed by WADA pursuant to agreement with WBSC) shall proceed as follows:

7.2.1 The results from all analyses must be sent to WBSC in encoded form, in a report signed by an authorized representative of the laboratory. All communication must be conducted confidentially and in conformity with ADAMS.

7.2.2 Upon receipt of an Adverse Analytical Finding, WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate shall conduct a review to determine whether: (a) an applicable TUE has been granted or will be granted as provided in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, or (b) there is any apparent departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Adverse Analytical Finding.

7.2.3 If the review of an Adverse Analytical Finding under Article 7.2.2 reveals an applicable TUE or departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Adverse Analytical Finding, the entire test shall be considered negative and the Athlete, the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA shall be so informed.

7.3 Notification After Review Regarding Adverse Analytical Findings

7.3.1 If the review of an Adverse Analytical Finding under Article 7.2.2 does not reveal an applicable TUE or entitlement to a TUE as provided in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, or departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Adverse Analytical Finding, WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate shall promptly notify the Athlete, and simultaneously the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA, in the manner set out in Article 14.1, of: (a) the Adverse Analytical Finding; (b) the anti-doping rule violated; (c) the Athlete’s right to promptly request the analysis of the B Sample or, failing such request, that the B Sample analysis may be deemed waived; (d) the scheduled date, time and place for the B Sample analysis if the Athlete or WBSC chooses to request an analysis of the B Sample; (e) the opportunity for the Athlete and/or the Athlete’s representative to attend the B Sample opening and analysis in accordance with the International Standard for Laboratories if such analysis is requested; (f) the Athlete’s right to request copies of the A and B Sample laboratory documentation package which includes information as required by the International Standard for Laboratories;(g) the Athlete’s right to request a hearing or, failing such request within the deadline specified in the notification, that the hearing may be deemed waived; (h) the opportunity for the Athlete to provide written explanation about the overall circumstances of the case or to dispute (within a specific deadline indicated in the notification) the WBSC assertion that an anti-doping rule violation has occurred (i) the imposition of a mandatory Provisional Suspension (in case described in article 7.9.1) (j) the imposition of the optional Provisional Suspension in cases where WBSC decides to impose it in accordance with Article 7.9.2 (k) the opportunity to accept voluntarily a Provisional Suspension pending the resolution of the matter, in all cases where a Provisional Suspension has not been imposed (l) the Athlete’s opportunity to promptly admit the anti-doping rule violation and consequently request the reduction in the period of Ineligibility as described in Article 10.6.3 (m) the Athlete’s opportunity to cooperate and provide Substantial Assistance in discovering or establishing Anti-Doping Rule Violations as described in Article 10.6.1. If WBSC decides not to bring forward the Adverse Analytical Finding as an anti-doping rule violation, it shall so notify the Athlete, the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA.

7.3.2 Where requested by the Athlete or WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate, arrangements shall be made to analyze the B Sample in accordance with the International Standard for Laboratories. An Athlete may accept the A Sample analytical results by waiving the requirement for B Sample analysis. WBSC may nonetheless elect to proceed with the B Sample analysis.

7.3.3 The Athlete and/or his representative shall be allowed to be present at the analysis of the B Sample. Also, a representative of WBSC as well as a representative of the Athlete’s National Federation shall be allowed to be present.

7.3.4 If the B Sample analysis does not confirm the A Sample analysis, then (unless WBSC takes the case forward as an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.2) the entire test shall be considered negative and the Athlete, the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA shall be so informed.

7.3.5 If the B Sample analysis confirms the A Sample analysis, the findings shall be reported to the Athlete, the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and to WADA.

7.4 Review of Atypical Findings

7.4.1 As provided in the International Standard for Laboratories, in some circumstances laboratories are directed to report the presence of Prohibited Substances, which may also be produced endogenously, as Atypical Findings, i.e., as findings that are subject to further investigation.

7.4.2 Upon receipt of an Atypical Finding, WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate shall conduct a review to determine whether: (a) an applicable TUE has been granted or will be granted as provided in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, or (b) there is any apparent departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Atypical Finding.

7.4.3 If the review of an Atypical Finding under Article 7.4.2 reveals an applicable TUE or a departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Atypical Finding, the entire test shall be considered negative and the Athlete, the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA shall be so informed.

7.4.4 If that review does not reveal an applicable TUE or a departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Atypical Finding, WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate shall conduct the required investigation or cause it to be conducted. After the investigation is completed, either the Atypical Finding will be brought forward as an Adverse Analytical Finding, in accordance with Article 7.3.1, or else the Athlete, the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA shall be notified that the Atypical Finding will not be brought forward as an Adverse Analytical Finding.

7.4.5 WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate will not provide notice of an Atypical Finding until it has completed its investigation and has decided whether it will bring the Atypical Finding forward as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless one of the following circumstances exists:

7.4.5.1 If WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate determines the B Sample should be analyzed prior to the conclusion of its investigation, it may conduct the B Sample analysis after notifying the Athlete, with such notice to include a description of the Atypical Finding and the information described in Article 7.3.1(d)-(f).

7.4.5.2 If WBSC is asked (a) by a Major Event Organization shortly before one of its International Events, or (b) by a sport organization responsible for meeting an imminent deadline for selecting team members for an International Event, to disclose whether any Athlete identified on a list provided by the Major Event Organization or sport organization has a pending Atypical Finding, WBSC shall so advise the Major Event Organization or sports organization after first providing notice of the Atypical Finding to the Athlete.

7.5 Review of Atypical Passport Findings and Adverse Passport Findings

Review of Atypical Passport Findings and Adverse Passport Findings shall take place as provided in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations and International Standard for Laboratories. At such time as WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate is satisfied that an anti-doping rule violation has occurred, it shall promptly give the Athlete (and simultaneously the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA) notice of the anti-doping rule violation asserted and the basis of that assertion.

7.6 Review of Whereabouts Failures

The WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate shall review potential filing failures and missed tests, as defined in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, in respect of Athletes who file their whereabouts information with WBSC, in accordance with Annex I to the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. At such time as the WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate is satisfied that an Article 2.4 anti-doping rule violation has occurred, it shall promptly give the Athlete (and simultaneously the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA) notice that it is asserting a violation of Article 2.4 and the basis of that assertion.

7.7 Review of Other Anti-Doping Rule Violations Not Covered by Articles 7.2–7.6

The WBSC Doping Review Panel shall conduct any follow-up investigation required into a possible anti-doping rule violation not covered by Articles 7.2- 7.6. At such time as the WBSC Doping Review Panel is satisfied that an anti-doping rule violation has occurred, it shall promptly give the Athlete or other Person (and simultaneously the Athlete’s or other Person’s National Anti-Doping Organization and WADA) notice of the anti-doping rule violation asserted and the basis of that assertion.

7.8 Identification of Prior Anti-Doping Rule Violations

Before giving an Athlete or other Person notice of an asserted anti-doping rule violation as provided above, WBSC shall refer to ADAMS and contact WADA and other relevant Anti-Doping Organizations to determine whether any prior anti-doping rule violation exists.

7.9 Provisional Suspensions

7.9.1 Mandatory Provisional Suspension: If analysis of an A Sample has resulted in an Adverse Analytical Finding for a Prohibited Substance that is not a Specified Substance, or for a Prohibited Method, and a review in accordance with Article 7.2.2 does not reveal an applicable TUE or departure from the International Standard for Testing and Investigations or the International Standard for Laboratories that caused the Adverse Analytical Finding, a Provisional Suspension shall be imposed upon or promptly after the notification described in Articles 7.2, 7.3 or 7.5.

7.9.2 Optional Provisional Suspension: In case of an Adverse Analytical Finding for a Specified Substance, or in the case of any other anti-doping rule violations not covered by Article 7.9.1, WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate may impose a Provisional Suspension on the Athlete or other Person against whom the anti-doping rule violation is asserted at any time after the review and notification described in Articles 7.2–7.7 and prior to the final hearing as described in Article 8.

7.9.3 Where a Provisional Suspension is imposed pursuant to Article 7.9.1 or Article 7.9.2, the Athlete or other Person shall be given either: (a) an opportunity for a Provisional Hearing either before or on a timely basis after imposition of the Provisional Suspension, upon request by the Athlete or other Person; or (b) an opportunity for an expedited final hearing in accordance with Article 8 on a timely basis after imposition of the Provisional Suspension. Furthermore, the Athlete or other Person has a right to appeal from the Provisional Suspension in accordance with Article 13.2 (save as set out in Article 7.9.3.1).

7.9.3.1 The Provisional Suspension may be lifted if the Athlete demonstrates to the hearing panel that the violation is likely to have involved a Contaminated Product. A hearing panel’s decision not to lift a mandatory Provisional Suspension on account of the Athlete’s assertion regarding a Contaminated Product shall not be appealable.

7.9.3.2 The Provisional Suspension shall be imposed (or shall not be lifted) unless the Athlete or other Person establishes that: (a) the assertion of an anti-doping rule violation has no reasonable prospect of being upheld, e.g., because of a patent flaw in the case against the Athlete or other Person; or (b) the Athlete or other Person has a strong arguable case that he/she bears No Fault or Negligence for the anti-doping rule violation(s) asserted, so that any period of Ineligibility that might otherwise be imposed for such a violation is likely to be completely eliminated by application of Article 10.4; or (c) some other facts exist that make it clearly unfair, in all of the circumstances, to impose a Provisional Suspension prior to a final hearing in accordance with Article 8. This ground is to be construed narrowly, and applied only in truly exceptional circumstances. For example, the fact that the Provisional Suspension would prevent the Athlete or other Person participating in a particular Competition or Event shall not qualify as exceptional circumstances for these purposes.

7.9.4 If a Provisional Suspension is imposed based on an A Sample Adverse Analytical Finding and subsequent analysis of the B Sample does not confirm the A Sample analysis, then the Athlete shall not be subject to any further Provisional Suspension on account of a violation of Article 2.1. In circumstances where the Athlete (or the Athlete’s team) has been removed from a Competition based on a violation of Article 2.1 and the subsequent B Sample analysis does not confirm the A Sample finding, then if it is still possible for the Athlete or team to be reinserted, without otherwise affecting the Competition, the Athlete or team may continue to take part in the Competition. In addition, the Athlete or team may thereafter take part in other Competitions in the same Event.

7.9.5 In all cases where an Athlete or other Person has been notified of an anti-doping rule violation but a Provisional Suspension has not been imposed on him or her, the Athlete or other Person shall be offered the opportunity to accept a Provisional Suspension voluntarily pending the resolution of the matter.

[Comment to Article 7.9: Athletes and other Persons shall receive credit for a Provisional Suspension against any period of Ineligibility which is ultimately imposed. See Articles 10.11.3.1 and 10.11.3.2.]

7.10 Resolution Without a Hearing

7.10.1 Agreement between parties

At any time during the results management process the Athlete or other Person may agree with WBSC on the Consequences which are either mandated by the Code or which the WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate considers appropriate where discretion as to Consequences exists under these Rules and the Code. The agreement shall state the full reasons for any period of Ineligibility agreed upon, including (if applicable) a justification for why the discretion as to Consequences was applied.

Such agreement shall be deemed to be a decision made under these Anti-Doping Rules within the meaning of Article 13. The decision will be reported to the parties with a right to appeal under Article 13.2.3 as
provided in Article 14.2.2 and shall be published in accordance with Article 14.3.2.

7.10.2 Waiver of hearing

An Athlete or other Person against whom an anti-doping rule violation is asserted may waive a hearing expressly.

Alternatively, if the Athlete or other Person against whom an anti-doping rule violation is asserted fails to request the hearing and/or to dispute that assertion within the deadline specified in the notice sent by the WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate asserting the violation, then he/she shall be deemed to have waived a hearing.

7.10.3 Process in case of Athlete’s waiving of hearing

In cases where Article 7.10.2 applies, a hearing before a hearing panel shall not be required. Instead WBSC’s Doping Administrator or its delegate will refer the case to the WBSC Doping Hearing Panel for adjudication, transmitting all the available documents of the case.
The WBSC’s Doping Hearing Panel is composed of at least three members (one Chair and two members) nominated by WBSC.
The WBSC’s Doping Hearing Panel shall promptly issue a written decision (in accordance with art 8.2) about the commission of the anti-doping rule violation and the Consequences imposed as a result, and setting out the full reasons for any period of Ineligibility imposed, including (if applicable) a justification for why the maximum potential period of Ineligibility was not imposed. The WBSC shall send copies of that decision to other Anti-Doping Organizations with a right to appeal under Article 13.2.3, and shall Publicly Disclose that decision in accordance with Article 14.3.2.

7.11 Notification of Results Management Decisions

In all cases where WBSC has asserted the commission of an anti-doping rule violation, withdrawn the assertion of an anti-doping rule violation, imposed a Provisional Suspension, or agreed with an Athlete or other Person on the imposition of Consequences without a hearing, WBSC shall give notice thereof in accordance with Article 14.2.1 to other Anti-Doping Organizations with a right to appeal under Article 13.2.3.

7.12 Retirement from Sport

If an Athlete or other Person retires while WBSC is conducting the results management process, WBSC retains jurisdiction to complete its results management process. If an Athlete or other Person retires before any results management process has begun, and WBSC would have had results management authority over the Athlete or other Person at the time the Athlete or other Person committed an anti-doping rule violation, WBSC has authority to conduct results management in respect of that anti-doping rule violation.

[Comment to Article 7.12: Conduct by an Athlete or other Person before the Athlete or other Person was subject to the jurisdiction of any Anti-Doping Organization would not constitute an anti-doping rule violation but could be a legitimate basis for denying the Athlete or other Person membership in a sports organization.]

ARTICLE 8 RIGHT TO A FAIR HEARING

8.1 Principles for a Fair Hearing

8.1.1 When WBSC sends a notice to an Athlete or other Person asserting an anti-doping rule violation, and there is no agreement in accordance with Article 7.10.1 or the Athlete or other Person does not waive a hearing in accordance with Article 7.10.2, then the case shall be referred to the WBSC Doping Hearing Panel for hearing and adjudication.

8.1.2 Hearings shall be scheduled and completed within a reasonable time. Where a Provisional Suspension has been imposed or otherwise accepted by the Athlete or other Person the hearings should be expedited. In all cases, the hearing should be held within 6 months from the notification of the Athlete or other Person that an anti-doping rule violation is being asserted. Hearings held in connection with Events that are subject to these Anti-Doping Rules may be conducted by an expedited process where permitted by the hearing panel.

[Comment to Article 8.1.2: For example, a hearing could be expedited on the eve of a major Event where the resolution of the anti-doping rule violation is necessary to determine the Athlete’s eligibility to participate in the Event, or during an Event where the resolution of the case will affect the validity of the Athlete’s results or continued participation in the Event.]

8.1.3 The WBSC Doping Hearing Panel shall determine the procedure to be followed at the hearing.

The hearing process shall respect the following principles:

a) the right of each party to be represented by counsel (at the party’s own expenses) or to be accompanied by a Person chosen by each party;

b) the right to respond to the asserted anti-doping rule violation and make submissions with respect to the resulting Consequences;

c) the right of each party to present evidence, including the right to call and question witnesses; and,

d) the Athlete’s or other Person’s right to an interpreter at the hearing.

The WBSC’s Doping Hearing Panel shall have jurisdiction to determine which party shall bear the responsibility for the cost of the interpreter.

8.1.4 WADA and the National Federation of the Athlete or other Person may attend the hearing as observers. In any event, WBSC shall keep WADA fully apprised as to the status of pending cases and the result of all hearings.

8.1.5 The WBSC Doping Hearing Panel shall act in a fair and impartial manner towards all parties at all times.

8.2 Decisions

8.2.1 The WBSC Doping Hearing Panel shall issue a written decision within 30 days from the date of the end of the hearing or from the date the case has been referred to the panel when the hearing has been waived in accordance with Article 7.10.2. The decision shall include the full reasons for the decision and for any period of Ineligibility imposed, including (if applicable) a justification for why the greatest potential Consequences were not imposed.

The decision shall be written in English.
8.2.2 The decision may be appealed to the CAS as provided in Article 13. Copies of the decision shall be provided to the Athlete or other Person and to other Anti-Doping Organizations with a right to appeal under Article 13.2.3.

8.2.3 If no appeal is brought against the decision, then (a) if the decision is that an anti-doping rule violation was committed, the decision shall be Publicly Disclosed as provided in Article 14.3.2; but (b) if the decision is that no anti-doping rule violation was committed, then the decision shall only be Publicly Disclosed with the consent of the Athlete or other Person who is the subject of the decision. WBSC shall use reasonable efforts to obtain such consent, and if consent is obtained, shall Publicly Disclose the decision in its entirety or in such redacted form as the Athlete or other Person may approve.
The principles contained at Article 14.3.6 shall be applied in cases involving a Minor.

8.3 Single Hearing Before CAS

Cases asserting anti-doping rule violations may be heard directly at CAS, with no requirement for a prior hearing, with the consent of the Athlete, WBSC, WADA, and any other Anti-Doping Organization that would have had a right to appeal a first instance hearing decision to CAS.

[Comment to Article 8.3: Where all of the parties identified in this Article are satisfied that their interests will be adequately protected in a single hearing, there is no need to incur the extra expense of two hearings. An Anti-Doping Organization that wants to participate in the CAS hearing as a party or as an observer may condition its approval of a single hearing on being granted that right.]

ARTICLE 9 AUTOMATIC DISQUALIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL RESULTS

An anti-doping rule violation in Individual Sports in connection with an In-Competition test automatically leads to Disqualification of the result obtained in that Competition with all resulting Consequences, including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes.

[Comment to Article 9: For Team Sports, any awards received by individual players will be Disqualified. However, Disqualification of the team will be as provided in Article 11. In sports which are not Team Sports but where awards are given to teams, Disqualification or other disciplinary action against the team when one or more team members have committed an anti-doping rule violation shall be as provided in the applicable rules of the International Federation.]

ARTICLE 10 SANCTIONS ON INDIVIDUALS

10.1 Disqualification of Results in the Event during which an Anti-Doping Rule Violation Occurs

An anti-doping rule violation occurring during or in connection with an Event may, upon the decision of the ruling body of the Event, lead to Disqualification of all of the Athlete’s individual results obtained in that Event with all Consequences, including forfeiture of all medals, points and prizes, except as provided in Article 10.1.1.

Factors to be included in considering whether to Disqualify other results in an Event might include, for example, the seriousness of the Athlete’s anti-doping rule violation and whether the Athlete tested negative in the other Competitions.

[Comment to Article 10.1: Whereas Article 9 Disqualifies the result in a single Competition in which the Athlete tested positive (e.g., the 100 meter backstroke), this Article may lead to Disqualification of all results in all races during the Event (e.g., the FINA World Championships).]

10.1.1 If the Athlete establishes that he or she bears No Fault or Negligence for the violation, the Athlete’s individual results in the other Competitions shall not be Disqualified, unless the Athlete’s results in Competitions other than the Competition in which the anti-doping rule violation occurred were likely to have been affected by the Athlete’s anti-doping rule violation.

10.2 Ineligibility for Presence, Use or Attempted Use, or Possession of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method

The period of Ineligibility for a violation of Articles 2.1, 2.2 or 2.6 shall be as follows, subject to potential reduction or suspension pursuant to Articles 10.4, 10.5 or 10.6:

10.2.1 The period of Ineligibility shall be four years where:

10.2.1.1 The anti-doping rule violation does not involve a Specified Substance, unless the Athlete or other Person can establish that the anti-doping rule violation was not intentional.

10.2.1.2 The anti-doping rule violation involves a Specified Substance and WBSC can establish that the anti-doping rule violation was intentional.

10.2.2 If Article 10.2.1 does not apply, the period of Ineligibility shall be two years.

10.2.3 As used in Articles 10.2 and 10.3, the term “intentional” is meant to identify those Athletes who cheat. The term therefore requires that the Athlete or other Person engaged in conduct which he or she knew constituted an anti-doping rule violation or knew that there was a significant risk that the conduct might constitute or result in an anti-doping rule violation and manifestly disregarded that risk. An anti-doping rule violation resulting from an Adverse Analytical Finding for a substance which is only prohibited In-Competition shall be rebuttably presumed to be not intentional if the substance is a Specified Substance and the Athlete can establish that the Prohibited Substance was Used Out-of-Competition. An anti-doping rule violation resulting from an Adverse Analytical Finding for a substance which is only prohibited In-Competition shall not be considered intentional if the substance is not a Specified Substance and the Athlete can establish that the Prohibited Substance was Used Out-of-Competition in a context unrelated to sport performance.

10.3 Ineligibility for Other Anti-Doping Rule Violations

The period of Ineligibility for anti-doping rule violations other than as provided in Article 10.2 shall be as follows, unless Articles 10.5 or 10.6 are applicable:

10.3.1 For violations of Article 2.3 or Article 2.5, the period of Ineligibility shall be four years unless, in the case of failing to submit to Sample collection, the Athlete can establish that the commission of the anti-doping rule violation was not intentional (as defined in Article 10.2.3), in which case the period of Ineligibility shall be two years.

10.3.2 For violations of Article 2.4, the period of Ineligibility shall be two years, subject to reduction down to a minimum of one year, depending on the Athlete’s degree of Fault. The flexibility between two years and one year of Ineligibility in this Article is not available to Athletes where a pattern of last-minute whereabouts changes or other conduct raises a serious suspicion that the Athlete was trying to avoid being available for Testing.

10.3.3 For violations of Article 2.7 or 2.8, the period of Ineligibility shall be a minimum of four years up to lifetime Ineligibility, depending on the seriousness of the violation. An Article 2.7 or Article 2.8 violation involving a Minor shall be considered a particularly serious violation and, if committed by Athlete Support Personnel for violations other than for Specified Substances, shall result in lifetime Ineligibility for Athlete Support Personnel. In addition, significant violations of Article 2.7 or 2.8 which may also violate non-sporting laws and regulations, shall be reported to the competent administrative, professional or judicial authorities.

[Comment to Article 10.3.3: Those who are involved in doping Athletes or covering up doping should be subject to sanctions which are more severe than the Athletes who test positive. Since the authority of sport organizations is generally limited to Ineligibility for accreditation, membership and other sport benefits, reporting Athlete Support Personnel to competent authorities is an important step in the deterrence of doping.]

10.3.4 For violations of Article 2.9, the period of Ineligibility imposed shall be a minimum of two years, up to four years, depending on the seriousness of the violation.

10.3.5 For violations of Article 2.10, the period of Ineligibility shall be two years, subject to reduction down to a minimum of one year, depending on the Athlete or other Person’s degree of Fault and other circumstances of the case.

[Comment to Article 10.3.5: Where the “other Person” referenced in Article 2.10 is an entity and not an individual, that entity may be disciplined as provided in Article 12.]

10.4 Elimination of the Period of Ineligibility where there is No Fault or Negligence

If an Athlete or other Person establishes in an individual case that he or she bears No Fault or Negligence, then the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility shall be eliminated.

[Comment to Article 10.4: This Article and Article 10.5.2 apply only to the imposition of sanctions; they are not applicable to the determination of whether an anti-doping rule violation has occurred. They will only apply in exceptional circumstances, for example where an Athlete could prove that, despite all due care, he or she was sabotaged by a competitor. Conversely, No Fault or Negligence would not apply in the following circumstances: (a) a positive test resulting from a mislabeled or contaminated vitamin or nutritional supplement (Athletes are responsible for what they ingest (Article 2.1.1) and have been warned against the possibility of supplement contamination); (b) the Administration of a Prohibited Substance by the Athlete’s personal physician or trainer without disclosure to the Athlete (Athletes are responsible for their choice of medical personnel and for advising medical personnel that they cannot be given any Prohibited Substance); and (c) sabotage of the Athlete’s food or drink by a spouse, coach or other Person within the Athlete’s circle of associates (Athletes are responsible for what they ingest and for the conduct of those Persons to whom they entrust access to their food and drink). However, depending on the unique facts of a particular case, any of the referenced illustrations could result in a reduced sanction under Article 10.5 based on No Significant Fault or Negligence.]

10.5 Reduction of the Period of Ineligibility based on No Significant Fault or Negligence

10.5.1 Reduction of Sanctions for Specified Substances or Contaminated Products for Violations of Article 2.1, 2.2 or 2.6.

10.5.1.1 Specified Substances

Where the anti-doping rule violation involves a Specified Substance, and the Athlete or other Person can establish No Significant Fault or Negligence, then the period of Ineligibility shall be, at a minimum, a reprimand and no period of Ineligibility, and at a maximum, two years of Ineligibility, depending on the Athlete’s or other Person’s degree of Fault.

10.5.1.2 Contaminated Products

In cases where the Athlete or other Person can establish No Significant Fault or Negligence and that the detected Prohibited Substance came from a Contaminated Product, then the period of Ineligibility shall be, at a minimum, a reprimand and no period of Ineligibility, and at a maximum, two years Ineligibility, depending on the Athlete’s or other Person’s degree of Fault.

[Comment to Article 10.5.1.2: In assessing that Athlete’s degree of Fault, it would, for example, be favorable for the Athlete if the Athlete had declared the product which was subsequently determined to be contaminated on his or her Doping Control form.]

10.5.2 Application of No Significant Fault or Negligence beyond the Application of Article 10.5.1

If an Athlete or other Person establishes in an individual case where Article 10.5.1 is not applicable that he or she bears No Significant Fault or Negligence, then, subject to further reduction or elimination as provided in Article 10.6, the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility may be reduced based on the Athlete or other Person’s degree of Fault, but the reduced period of Ineligibility may not be less than one-half of the period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable. If the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility is a lifetime, the reduced period under this Article may be no less than eight years.

[Comment to Article 10.5.2: Article 10.5.2 may be applied to any anti-doping rule violation except those Articles where intent is an element of the anti-doping rule violation (e.g., Article 2.5, 2.7, 2.8 or 2.9) or an element of a particular sanction (e.g., Article 10.2.1) or a range of Ineligibility is already provided in an Article based on the Athlete or other Person’s degree of Fault.]

10.6 Elimination, Reduction, or Suspension of Period of Ineligibility or other Consequences for Reasons Other than Fault

10.6.1 Substantial Assistance in Discovering or Establishing Anti-Doping Rule Violations

10.6.1.1 WBSC may, prior to a final appellate decision under Article 13 or the expiration of the time to appeal, suspend a part of the period of Ineligibility imposed in an individual case in which it has results management authority where the Athlete or other Person has provided Substantial Assistance to an Anti-Doping Organization, criminal authority or professional disciplinary body which results in: (i) the Anti-Doping Organization discovering or bringing forward an anti-doping rule violation by another Person, or (ii) which results in a criminal or disciplinary body discovering or bringing forward a criminal offense or the breach of professional rules committed by another Person and the information provided by the Person providing Substantial Assistance is made available to WBSC. After a final appellate decision under Article 13 or the expiration of time to appeal, WBSC may only suspend a part of the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility with the approval of WADA. The extent to which the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility may be suspended shall be based on the seriousness of the anti-doping rule violation committed by the Athlete or other Person and the significance of the Substantial Assistance provided by the Athlete or other Person to the effort to eliminate doping in sport. No more than three-quarters of the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility may be suspended. If the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility is a lifetime, the non-suspended period under this Article must be no less than eight years. If the Athlete or other Person fails to continue to cooperate and to provide the complete and credible Substantial Assistance upon which a suspension of the period of Ineligibility was based, WBSC shall reinstate the original period of Ineligibility. If WBSC decides to reinstate a suspended period of Ineligibility or decides not to reinstate a suspended period of Ineligibility, that decision may be appealed by any Person entitled to appeal under Article 13.

10.6.1.2 To further encourage Athletes and other Persons to provide Substantial Assistance to Anti-Doping Organizations, at the request of WBSC or at the request of the Athlete or other Person who has (or has been asserted to have) committed an anti-doping rule violation, WADA may agree at any stage of the results management process, including after a final appellate decision under Article 13, to what it considers to be an appropriate suspension of the otherwise-applicable period of Ineligibility and other Consequences. In exceptional circumstances, WADA may agree to suspensions of the period of Ineligibility and other Consequences for Substantial Assistance greater than those otherwise provided in this Article, or even no period of Ineligibility, and/or no return of prize money or payment of fines or costs. WADA’s approval shall be subject to reinstatement of sanction, as otherwise provided in this Article. Notwithstanding Article 13, WADA’s decisions in the context of this Article may not be appealed by any other Anti-Doping Organization.

10.6.1.3 If WBSC suspends any part of an otherwise applicable sanction because of Substantial Assistance, then notice providing justification for the decision shall be provided to the other Anti-Doping Organizations with a right to appeal under Article 13.2.3 as provided in Article 14.2. In unique circumstances where WADA determines that it would be in the best interest of anti-doping, WADA may authorize WBSC to enter into appropriate confidentiality agreements limiting or delaying the disclosure of the Substantial Assistance agreement or the nature of Substantial Assistance being provided.

[Comment to Article 10.6.1: The cooperation of Athletes, Athlete Support Personnel and other Persons who acknowledge their mistakes and are willing to bring other anti-doping rule violations to light is important to clean sport. This is the only circumstance under the Code where the suspension of an otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility is authorized.]

10.6.2 Admission of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation in the Absence of Other Evidence

Where an Athlete or other Person voluntarily admits the commission of an anti-doping rule violation before having received notice of a Sample collection which could establish an anti-doping rule violation (or, in the case of an anti-doping rule violation other than Article 2.1, before receiving first notice of the admitted violation pursuant to Article 7) and that admission is the only reliable evidence of the violation at the time of admission, then the period of Ineligibility may be reduced, but not below one-half of the period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable.

[Comment to Article 10.6.2: This Article is intended to apply when an Athlete or other Person comes forward and admits to an anti-doping rule violation in circumstances where no Anti-Doping Organization is aware that an anti-doping rule violation might have been committed. It is not intended to apply to circumstances where the admission occurs after the Athlete or other Person believes he or she is about to be caught. The amount by which Ineligibility is reduced should be based on the likelihood that the Athlete or other Person would have been caught had he/she not come forward voluntarily.]

10.6.3 Prompt Admission of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation after being Confronted with a Violation Sanctionable under Article 10.2.1 or Article 10.3.1

An Athlete or other Person potentially subject to a four-year sanction under Article 10.2.1 or 10.3.1 (for evading or refusing Sample Collection or Tampering with Sample Collection), by promptly admitting the asserted anti-doping rule violation after being confronted by WBSC, and also upon the approval and at the discretion of both WADA and WBSC, may receive a reduction in the period of Ineligibility down to a minimum of two years, depending on the seriousness of the violation and the Athlete or other Person’s degree of Fault.

10.6.4 Application of Multiple Grounds for Reduction of a Sanction

Where an Athlete or other Person establishes entitlement to reduction in sanction under more than one provision of Article 10.4, 10.5 or 10.6, before applying any reduction or suspension under Article 10.6, the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility shall be determined in accordance with Articles 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, and 10.5. If the Athlete or other Person establishes entitlement to a reduction or suspension of the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.6, then the period of Ineligibility may be reduced or suspended, but not below one-fourth of the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility.

[Comment to Article 10.6.4: The appropriate sanction is determined in a sequence of four steps. First, the hearing panel determines which of the basic sanctions (Articles 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, or 10.5) apply to the particular anti-doping rule violation. Second, if the basic sanction provides for a range of sanctions, the hearing panel must determine the applicable sanction within that range according to the Athlete or other Person’s degree of Fault. In a third step, the hearing panel establishes whether there is a basis for elimination, suspension, or reduction of the sanction (Article 10.6). Finally, the hearing panel decides on the commencement of the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.11. Several examples of how Article 10 is to be applied are found in Appendix 2.]

10.7 Multiple Violations

10.7.1 For an Athlete or other Person’s second anti-doping rule violation, the period of Ineligibility shall be the greater of:

(a) six months;

(b) one-half of the period of Ineligibility imposed for the first anti-doping rule violation without taking into account any reduction under Article 10.6; or

(c) twice the period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable to the second anti-doping rule violation treated as if it were a first violation, without taking into account any reduction under Article 10.6.

The period of Ineligibility established above may then be further reduced by the application of Article 10.6.

10.7.2 A third anti-doping rule violation will always result in a lifetime period of Ineligibility, except if the third violation fulfills the condition for elimination or reduction of the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.4 or 10.5, or involves a violation of Article 2.4. In these particular cases, the period of Ineligibility shall be from eight years to lifetime Ineligibility.

10.7.3 An anti-doping rule violation for which an Athlete or other Person has established No Fault or Negligence shall not be considered a prior violation for purposes of this Article.

10.7.4 Additional Rules for Certain Potential Multiple Violations

10.7.4.1 For purposes of imposing sanctions under Article 10.7, an anti-doping rule violation will only be considered a second violation if WBSC can establish that the Athlete or other Person committed the second anti-doping rule violation after the Athlete or other Person received notice pursuant to Article 7, or after WBSC made reasonable efforts to give notice of the first anti-doping rule violation. If WBSC cannot establish this, the violations shall be considered together as one single first violation, and the sanction imposed shall be based on the violation that carries the more severe sanction.

10.7.4.2 If, after the imposition of a sanction for a first anti-doping rule violation, WBSC discovers facts involving an anti-doping rule violation by the Athlete or other Person which occurred prior to notification regarding the first violation, then WBSC shall impose an additional sanction based on the sanction that could have been imposed if the two violations had been adjudicated at the same time. Results in all Competitions dating back to the earlier anti-doping rule violation will be Disqualified as provided in Article 10.8.

10.7.5 Multiple Anti-Doping Rule Violations during Ten-Year Period

For purposes of Article 10.7, each anti-doping rule violation must take place within the same ten-year period in order to be considered multiple violations.

10.8 Disqualification of Results in Competitions Subsequent to Sample Collection or Commission of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation

In addition to the automatic Disqualification of the results in the Competition which produced the positive Sample under Article 9, all other competitive results of the Athlete obtained from the date a positive Sample was collected (whether In-Competition or Out-of-Competition), or other anti-doping rule violation occurred, through the commencement of any Provisional Suspension or Ineligibility period, shall, unless fairness requires otherwise, be Disqualified with all of the resulting Consequences including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes.

[Comment to Article 10.8: Nothing in these Anti-Doping Rules precludes clean Athletes or other Persons who have been damaged by the actions of a Person who has committed an anti-doping rule violation from pursuing any right which they would otherwise have to seek damages from such Person.]

10.9 Allocation of CAS Cost Awards and Forfeited Prize Money

The priority for repayment of CAS cost awards and forfeited prize money shall be: first, payment of costs awarded by CAS; and second, reimbursement of the expenses of WBSC.

10.10 Financial Consequences

Where an Athlete or other Person commits an anti-doping rule violation, WBSC may, in its discretion and subject to the principle of proportionality, elect to a) recover from the Athlete or other Person costs associated with the anti-doping rule violation, regardless of the period of Ineligibility imposed and/or b) fine the Athlete or other Person in an amount up to $_10000_____ U.S. Dollars, only in cases where the maximum period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable has already been imposed.

The imposition of a financial sanction or the WBSC’s recovery of costs shall not be considered a basis for reducing the Ineligibility or other sanction which would otherwise be applicable under these Anti-Doping Rules or the Code.

10.11 Commencement of Ineligibility Period

Except as provided below, the period of Ineligibility shall start on the date of the final hearing decision providing for Ineligibility or, if the hearing is waived or there is no hearing, on the date Ineligibility is accepted or otherwise imposed.

10.11.1 Delays Not Attributable to the Athlete or other Person

Where there have been substantial delays in the hearing process or other aspects of Doping Control not attributable to the Athlete or other Person, WBSC may start the period of Ineligibility at an earlier date commencing as early as the date of Sample collection or the date on which another anti-doping rule violation last occurred. All competitive results achieved during the period of Ineligibility, including retroactive Ineligibility, shall be Disqualified.

[Comment to Article 10.11.1: In cases of anti-doping rule violations other than under Article 2.1, the time required for an Anti-Doping Organization to discover and develop facts sufficient to establish an anti-doping rule violation may be lengthy, particularly where the Athlete or other Person has taken affirmative action to avoid detection. In these circumstances, the flexibility provided in this Article to start the sanction at an earlier date should not be used.]

10.11.2 Timely Admission

Where the Athlete or other Person promptly (which, in all events, for an Athlete means before the Athlete competes again) admits the anti-doping rule violation after being confronted with the anti-doping rule violation by WBSC, the period of Ineligibility may start as early as the date of Sample collection or the date on which another anti-doping rule violation last occurred. In each case, however, where this Article is applied, the Athlete or other Person shall serve at least one-half of the period of Ineligibility going forward from the date the Athlete or other Person accepted the imposition of a sanction, the date of a hearing decision imposing a sanction, or the date the sanction is otherwise imposed. This Article shall not apply where the period of Ineligibility has already been reduced under Article 10.6.3.

10.11.3 Credit for Provisional Suspension or Period of Ineligibility Served

10.11.3.1 If a Provisional Suspension is imposed and respected by the Athlete or other Person, then the Athlete or other Person shall receive a credit for such period of Provisional Suspension against any period of Ineligibility which may ultimately be imposed. If a period of Ineligibility is served pursuant to a decision that is subsequently appealed, then the Athlete or other Person shall receive a credit for such period of Ineligibility served against any period of Ineligibility which may ultimately be imposed on appeal.

10.11.3.2 If an Athlete or other Person voluntarily accepts a Provisional Suspension in writing from WBSC and thereafter respects the Provisional Suspension, the Athlete or other Person shall receive a credit for such period of voluntary Provisional Suspension against any period of Ineligibility which may ultimately be imposed. A copy of the Athlete or other Person’s voluntary acceptance of a Provisional Suspension shall be provided promptly to each party entitled to receive notice of an asserted anti-doping rule violation under Article 14.1.

[Comment to Article 10.11.3.2: An Athlete’s voluntary acceptance of a Provisional Suspension is not an admission by the Athlete and shall not be used in any way as to draw an adverse inference against the Athlete.]

10.11.3.3 No credit against a period of Ineligibility shall be given for any time period before the effective date of the Provisional Suspension or voluntary Provisional Suspension regardless of whether the Athlete elected not to compete or was suspended by his or her team.

10.11.3.4 In Team Sports, where a period of Ineligibility is imposed upon a team, unless fairness requires otherwise, the period of Ineligibility shall start on the date of the final hearing decision providing for Ineligibility or, if the hearing is waived, on the date Ineligibility is accepted or otherwise imposed. Any period of team Provisional Suspension (whether imposed or voluntarily accepted) shall be credited against the total period of Ineligibility to be served.

[Comment to Article 10.11: Article 10.11 makes clear that delays not attributable to the Athlete, timely admission by the Athlete and Provisional Suspension are the only justifications for starting the period of Ineligibility earlier than the date of the final hearing decision.]

10.12 Status During Ineligibility

10.12.1 Prohibition Against Participation During Ineligibility

No Athlete or other Person who has been declared Ineligible may, during the period of Ineligibility, participate in any capacity in a Competition or activity (other than authorized anti-doping education or rehabilitation programs) authorized or organized by any Signatory, Signatory’s member organization, or a club or other member organization of a Signatory’s member organization,, or in Competitions authorized or organized by any professional league or any international or national level Event organization or any elite or national-level sporting activity funded by a governmental agency.

An Athlete or other Person subject to a period of Ineligibility longer than four years may, after completing four years of the period of Ineligibility, participate as an Athlete in local sport events not sanctioned or otherwise under the jurisdiction of a Code Signatory or member of a Code Signatory, but only so long as the local sport event is not at a level that could otherwise qualify such Athlete or other Person directly or indirectly to compete in (or accumulate points toward) a national championship or International Event, and does not involve the Athlete or other Person working in any capacity with Minors.

An Athlete or other Person subject to a period of Ineligibility shall remain subject to Testing.

[Comment to Article 10.12.1: For example, subject to Article 10.12.2 below, an Ineligible Athlete cannot participate in a training camp, exhibition or practice organized by his or her National Federation or a club which is a member of that National Federation or which is funded by a governmental agency. Further, an Ineligible Athlete may not compete in a non-Signatory professional league (e.g., the National Hockey League, the National Basketball Association, etc.), Events organized by a non-Signatory International Event organization or a non-Signatory national-level event organization without triggering the Consequences set forth in Article 10.12.3. The term “activity” also includes, for example, administrative activities, such as serving as an official, director, officer, employee, or volunteer of the organization described in this Article. Ineligibility imposed in one sport shall also be recognized by other sports (see Article 15.1, Mutual Recognition).]

10.12.2 Return to Training

As an exception to Article 10.12.1, an Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of WBSC’s member organization during the shorter of: (1) the last two months of the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility, or (2) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed.

[Comment to Article 10.12.2: In many Team Sports and some individual sports (e.g., ski jumping and gymnastics), an Athlete cannot effectively train on his/her own so as to be ready to compete at the end of the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility. During the training period described in this Article, an Ineligible Athlete may not compete or engage in any activity described in Article 10.12.1 other than training.]

10.12.3 Violation of the Prohibition of Participation During Ineligibility

Where an Athlete or other Person who has been declared Ineligible violates the prohibition against participation during Ineligibility described in Article 10.12.1, the results of such participation shall be Disqualified and a new period of Ineligibility equal in length up to the original period of Ineligibility shall be added to the end of the original period of Ineligibility. The new period of Ineligibility may be adjusted based on the Athlete or other Person’s degree of Fault and other circumstances of the case. The determination of whether an Athlete or other Person has violated the prohibition against participation, and whether an adjustment is appropriate, shall be made by the Anti-Doping Organization whose results management led to the imposition of the initial period of Ineligibility. This decision may be appealed under Article 13.

Where an Athlete Support Person or other Person assists a Person in violating the prohibition against participation during Ineligibility, WBSC shall impose sanctions for a violation of Article 2.9 for such assistance.

10.12.4 Withholding of Financial Support during Ineligibility

In addition, for any anti-doping rule violation not involving a reduced sanction as described in Article 10.4 or 10.5, some or all sport-related financial support or other sport-related benefits received by such Person will be withheld by WBSC and its National Federations.

10.13 Automatic Publication of Sanction

A mandatory part of each sanction shall include automatic publication, as provided in Article 14.3.

[Comment to Article 10: Harmonization of sanctions has been one of the most discussed and debated areas of anti-doping. Harmonization means that the same rules and criteria are applied to assess the unique facts of each case. Arguments against requiring harmonization of sanctions are based on differences between sports including, for example, the following: in some sports the Athletes are professionals making a sizable income from the sport and in others the Athletes are true amateurs; in those sports where an Athlete’s career is short, a standard period of Ineligibility has a much more significant effect on the Athlete than in sports where careers are traditionally much longer. A primary argument in favor of harmonization is that it is simply not right that two Athletes from the same country who test positive for the same Prohibited Substance under similar circumstances should receive different sanctions only because they participate in different sports. In addition, flexibility in sanctioning has often been viewed as an unacceptable opportunity for some sporting organizations to be more lenient with dopers. The lack of harmonization of sanctions has also frequently been the source of jurisdictional conflicts between International Federations and National Anti-Doping Organizations.]

ARTICLE 11 CONSEQUENCES TO TEAMS

11.1 Testing of Team Sports

Where more than one member of a team in a Team Sport has been notified of an anti-doping rule violation under Article 7 in connection with an Event, the ruling body for the Event shall conduct appropriate Target Testing of the team during the Event Period.

11.2 Consequences for Team Sports

If more than two members of a team in a Team Sport are found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation during an Event Period, the ruling body of the Event shall impose an appropriate sanction on the team (e.g., loss of points, Disqualification from a Competition or Event, or other sanction) in addition to any Consequences imposed upon the individual Athletes committing the anti-doping rule violation.

11.3 Event Ruling Body may Establish Stricter Consequences for Team Sports

The ruling body for an Event may elect to establish rules for the Event which impose Consequences for Team Sports stricter than those in Article 11.2 for purposes of the Event.

[Comment to Article 11.3: For example, the International Olympic Committee could establish rules which would require Disqualification of a team from the Olympic Games based on a lesser number of anti-doping rule violations during the period of the Games.]

ARTICLE 12 SANCTIONS AND COSTS ASSESSED AGAINST SPORTING BODIES

12.1 WBSC has the authority to withhold some or all funding or other non-financial support to National Federations that are not in compliance with these Anti-Doping Rules.

12.2 National Federations shall be obligated to reimburse WBSC for all costs (including but not limited to laboratory fees, hearing expenses and travel) related to a violation of these Anti-Doping Rules committed by an Athlete or other Person affiliated with that National Federation.

12.3 WBSC may elect to take additional disciplinary action against National Federations with respect to recognition, the eligibility of its officials and Athletes to participate in International Events and fines based on the following:

12.3.1 Four or more violations of these Anti-Doping Rules (other than violations involving Article 2.4) are committed by Athletes or other Persons affiliated with a National Federation within a 12-month period in testing conducted by WBSC or Anti-Doping Organizations other than the National Federation or its National Anti-Doping Organization. In such event WBSC may in its discretion elect to: (a) ban all officials from that National Federation for participation in any WBSC activities for a period of up to two years and/or (b) fine the National Federation in an amount up to $_50000_____ U.S. Dollars. (For purposes of this Rule, any fine paid pursuant to Rule 12.3.2 shall be credited against any fine assessed.)

12.3.1.1 If four or more violations of these Anti-Doping Rules (other than violations involving Articles 2.4) are committed in addition to the violations described in Article 12.3.1 by Athletes or other Persons affiliated with a National Federation within a 12-month period in Testing conducted by WBSC or Anti-Doping Organizations other than the National Federation or its National Anti-Doping Organization, then WBSC may suspend that National Federation’s membership for a period of up to 4 years.

12.3.2 More than one Athlete or other Person from a National Federation commits an Anti-Doping Rule violation during an International Event. In such event WBSC may fine that National Federation in an amount up to $_50000_____ U.S. Dollars.

12.3.3 A National Federation has failed to make diligent efforts to keep the IF informed about an Athlete’s whereabouts after receiving a request for that information from WBSC. In such event WBSC may fine the National Federation in an amount up to $ 50000_____ U.S. Dollars per Athlete in addition to all of the WBSC costs incurred in Testing that National Federation’s Athletes.

ARTICLE 13 APPEALS

13.1 Decisions Subject to Appeal

Decisions made under these Anti-Doping Rules may be appealed as set forth below in Article 13.2 through 13.7 or as otherwise provided in these Anti-Doping Rules, the Code or the International Standards. Such decisions shall remain in effect while under appeal unless the appellate body orders otherwise. Before an appeal is commenced, any post-decision review provided in the Anti-Doping Organization’s rules must be exhausted, provided that such review respects the principles set forth in Article 13.2.2 below (except as provided in Article 13.1.3).

13.1.1 Scope of Review Not Limited

The scope of review on appeal includes all issues relevant to the matter and is expressly not limited to the issues or scope of review before the initial decision maker.

13.1.2 CAS Shall Not Defer to the Findings Being Appealed

In making its decision, CAS need not give deference to the discretion exercised by the body whose decision is being appealed.

[Comment to Article 13.1.2: CAS proceedings are de novo. Prior proceedings do not limit the evidence or carry weight in the hearing before CAS.]

13.1.3 WADA Not Required to Exhaust Internal Remedies

Where WADA has a right to appeal under Article 13 and no other party has appealed a final decision within WBSC’s process, WADA may appeal such decision directly to CAS without having to exhaust other remedies in WBSC’s process.

[Comment to Article 13.1.3: Where a decision has been rendered before the final stage of WBSC’s process (for example, a first hearing) and no party elects to appeal that decision to the next level of WBSC’s process (e.g., the Managing Board), then WADA may bypass the remaining steps in WBSC’s internal process and appeal directly to CAS.]

13.2 Appeals from Decisions Regarding Anti-Doping Rule Violations, Consequences, Provisional Suspensions, Recognition of Decisions and Jurisdiction

A decision that an anti-doping rule violation was committed, a decision imposing Consequences or not imposing Consequences for an anti-doping rule violation, or a decision that no anti-doping rule violation was committed; a decision that an anti-doping rule violation proceeding cannot go forward for procedural reasons (including, for example, prescription); a decision by WADA not to grant an exception to the six month notice requirement for a retired Athlete to return to Competition under Article 5.7.1; a decision by WADA assigning results management under Article 7.1 of the Code; a decision by WBSC not to bring forward an Adverse Analytical Finding or an Atypical Finding as an anti-doping rule violation, or a decision not to go forward with an anti-doping rule violation after an investigation under Article 7.7; a decision to impose a Provisional Suspension as a result of a Provisional Hearing; WBSC’s failure to comply with Article 7.9; a decision that WBSC lacks jurisdiction to rule on an alleged anti-doping rule violation or its Consequences; a decision to suspend, or not suspend, a period of Ineligibility or to reinstate, or not reinstate, a suspended period of Ineligibility under Article 10.6.1; a decision under Article 10.12.3; and a decision by WBSC not to recognize another Anti-Doping Organization’s decision under Article 15, may be appealed exclusively as provided in Articles 13.2 – 13.7.

13.2.1 Appeals Involving International-Level Athletes or International Events

In cases arising from participation in an International Event or in cases involving International-Level Athletes, the decision may be appealed exclusively to CAS.

[Comment to Article 13.2.1: CAS decisions are final and binding except for any review required by law applicable to the annulment or enforcement of arbitral awards.]

13.2.2 Appeals Involving Other Athletes or Other Persons

In cases where Article 13.2.1 is not applicable, the decision may be appealed to a national-level appeal body, being an independent and impartial body established in accordance with rules adopted by the National Anti-Doping Organization having jurisdiction over the Athlete or other Person. The rules for such appeal shall respect the following principles: a timely hearing; a fair and impartial hearing panel; the right to be represented by counsel at the Person’s own expense; and a timely, written, reasoned decision. If the National Anti-Doping Organization has not established such a body, the decision may be appealed to CAS in accordance with the provisions applicable before such court.

13.2.3 Persons Entitled to Appeal

In cases under Article 13.2.1, the following parties shall have the right to appeal to CAS: (a) the Athlete or other Person who is the subject of the decision being appealed; (b) the other party to the case in which the decision was rendered; (c) WBSC; (d) the National Anti-Doping Organization of the Person’s country of residence or countries where the Person is a national or license holder; (e) the International Olympic Committee or International Paralympic Committee, as applicable, where the decision may have an effect in relation to the Olympic Games or Paralympic Games, including decisions affecting eligibility for the Olympic Games or Paralympic Games; and (f) WADA.

In cases under Article 13.2.2, the parties having the right to appeal to the national-level appeal body shall be as provided in the National Anti-Doping Organization’s rules but, at a minimum, shall include the following parties: (a) the Athlete or other Person who is the subject of the decision being appealed; (b) the other party to the case in which the decision was rendered; (c) WBSC; (d) the National Anti-Doping Organization of the Person’s country of residence; (e) the International Olympic Committee or International Paralympic Committee, as applicable, where the decision may have an effect in relation to the Olympic Games or Paralympic Games, including decisions affecting eligibility for the Olympic Games or Paralympic Games; and (f) WADA. For cases under Article 13.2.2, WADA, the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, and WBSC shall also have the right to appeal to CAS with respect to the decision of the national-level appeal body. Any party filing an appeal shall be entitled to assistance from CAS to obtain all relevant information from the Anti-Doping Organization whose decision is being appealed and the information shall be provided if CAS so directs.

Notwithstanding any other provision herein, the only Person who may appeal from a Provisional Suspension is the Athlete or other Person upon whom the Provisional Suspension is imposed.

13.2.4 Cross Appeals and other Subsequent Appeals Allowed

Cross appeals and other subsequent appeals by any respondent named in cases brought to CAS under the Code are specifically permitted. Any party with a right to appeal under this Article 13 must file a cross appeal or subsequent appeal at the latest with the party’s answer.

[Comment to Article 13.2.4: This provision is necessary because since 2011, CAS rules no longer permit an Athlete the right to cross appeal when an Anti-Doping Organization appeals a decision after the Athlete’s time for appeal has expired. This provision permits a full hearing for all parties.]

13.3 Failure to Render a Timely Decision

Where, in a particular case, WBSC fails to render a decision with respect to whether an anti-doping rule violation was committed within a reasonable deadline set by WADA, WADA may elect to appeal directly to CAS as if WBSC had rendered a decision finding no anti-doping rule violation. If the CAS hearing panel determines that an anti-doping rule violation was committed and that WADA acted reasonably in electing to appeal directly to CAS, then WADA’s costs and attorney fees in prosecuting the appeal shall be reimbursed to WADA by WBSC.

[Comment to Article 13.3: Given the different circumstances of each anti-doping rule violation investigation and results management process, it is not feasible to establish a fixed time period for WBSC to render a decision before WADA may intervene by appealing directly to CAS. Before taking such action, however, WADA will consult with WBSC and give WBSC an opportunity to explain why it has not yet rendered a decision.]

13.3.1 Failure of National Federation to Render a Timely Decision

Where, in a particular case, an WBSC affiliated National Federation fails to render a decision with respect to whether an anti-doping rule violation (for which the National Federation is the competent Results Management Authority) was committed within two (2) months, WBSC may decide to assume jurisdiction for the matters and conduct Results Management Authority in accordance with these Anti-Doping Rules.

Should this occur, the National Federation is liable for the costs incurred by WBSC for the management of the case.

13.4 Appeals Relating to TUEs

TUE decisions may be appealed exclusively as provided in Article 4.4.

13.5 Notification of Appeal Decisions

Any Anti-Doping Organization that is a party to an appeal shall promptly provide the appeal decision to the Athlete or other Person and to the other Anti-Doping Organizations that would have been entitled to appeal under Article 13.2.3 as provided under Article 14.2.

13.6 Appeal from Decisions Pursuant to Article 12

Decisions by WBSC pursuant to Article 12 may be appealed exclusively to CAS by the National Federation.

13.7 Time for Filing Appeals

13.7.1 Appeals to CAS

The time to file an appeal to CAS shall be twenty-one days from the date of receipt of the decision by the appealing party. The above notwithstanding, the following shall apply in connection with appeals filed by a party entitled to appeal but which was not a party to the proceedings that led to the decision being appealed:

a) Within fifteen days from notice of the decision, such party/ies shall have the right to request a copy of the case file from the body that issued the decision;

b) If such a request is made within the fifteen-day period, then the party making such request shall have twenty-one days from receipt of the file to file an appeal to CAS.

The above notwithstanding, the filing deadline for an appeal filed by WADA shall be the later of:

a) Twenty-one days after the last day on which any other party in the case could have appealed; or

b) Twenty-one days after WADA’s receipt of the complete file relating to the decision.

13.7.2 Appeals Under Article 13.2.2

The time to file an appeal to an independent and impartial body established at national level in accordance with rules established by the National Anti-Doping Organization shall be indicated by the same rules of the National Anti-Doping Organization.

The above notwithstanding, the filing deadline for an appeal or intervention filed by WADA shall be the later of:

(a) Twenty-one days after the last day on which any other party in the case could have appealed, or

(b) Twenty-one days after WADA’s receipt of the complete file relating to the decision.

ARTICLE 14 CONFIDENTIALITY AND REPORTING

14.1 Information Concerning Adverse Analytical Findings, Atypical Findings, and Other Asserted Anti-Doping Rule Violations

14.1.1 Notice of Anti-Doping Rule Violations to Athletes and other Persons

Notice to Athletes or other Persons of anti-doping rule violations asserted against them shall occur as provided under Articles 7 and 14 of these Anti-Doping Rules. Notice to an Athlete or other Person who is a member of a National Federation may be accomplished by delivery of the notice to the National Federation.

14.1.2 Notice of Anti-Doping Rule Violations to National Anti-Doping Organizations and WADA

Notice of the assertion of an anti-doping rule violation to National Anti-Doping Organizations and WADA shall occur as provided under Articles 7 and 14 of these Anti-Doping Rules, simultaneously with the notice to the Athlete or other Person.

14.1.3 Content of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation Notice

Notification of an anti-doping rule violation under Article 2.1 shall include: the Athlete’s name, country, sport and discipline within the sport, the Athlete’s competitive level, whether the test was In-Competition or Out-of-Competition, the date of Sample collection, the analytical result reported by the laboratory, and other information as required by the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Notice of anti-doping rule violations other than under Article 2.1 shall include the rule violated and the basis of the asserted violation.

14.1.4 Status Reports

Except with respect to investigations which have not resulted in notice of an anti-doping rule violation pursuant to Article 14.1.1, National Anti-Doping Organizations and WADA shall be regularly updated on the status and findings of any review or proceedings conducted pursuant to Article 7, 8 or 13 and shall be provided with a prompt written reasoned explanation or decision explaining the resolution of the matter.

14.1.5 Confidentiality

The recipient organizations shall not disclose this information beyond those Persons with a need to know (which would include the appropriate personnel at the applicable National Olympic Committee, National Federation, and team in a Team Sport) until WBSC has made Public Disclosure or has failed to make Public Disclosure as required in Article 14.3.

14.1.6 WBSC shall ensure that information concerning Adverse Analytical Findings, Atypical Findings, and other asserted anti-doping rule violations remains confidential until such information is Publicly Disclosed in accordance with Article 14.3, and shall include provisions in any contract entered into between WBSC and any of its employees (whether permanent or otherwise), contractors, agents and consultants, for the protection of such confidential information as well as for the investigation and disciplining of improper and/or unauthorised disclosure of such confidential information.

14.2 Notice of Anti-Doping Rule Violation Decisions and Request for Files

14.2.1 Anti-doping rule violation decisions rendered pursuant to Article 7.11, 8.2, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.12.3 or 13.5 shall include the full reasons for the decision, including, if applicable, a justification for why the greatest possible Consequences were not imposed. Where the decision is not in English or French, WBSC shall provide a short English or French summary of the decision and the supporting reasons.

14.2.2 An Anti-Doping Organization having a right to appeal a decision received pursuant to Article 14.2.1 may, within fifteen days of receipt, request a copy of the full case file pertaining to the decision.

14.3 Public Disclosure

14.3.1 The identity of any Athlete or other Person who is asserted by WBSC to have committed an anti-doping rule violation may be Publicly Disclosed by WBSC only after notice has been provided to the Athlete or other Person in accordance with Article 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6 or 7.7 and simultaneously to WADA and the National Anti-Doping Organization of the Athlete or other Person in accordance with Article 14.1.2.

14.3.2 No later than twenty days after it has been determined in a final appellate decision under Article 13.2.1 or 13.2.2, or such appeal has been waived, or a hearing in accordance with Article 8 has been waived, or the assertion of an anti-doping rule violation has not been timely challenged, WBSC must Publicly Report the disposition of the matter, including the sport, the anti-doping rule violated, the name of the Athlete or other Person committing the violation, the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method involved (if any), and the Consequences imposed. WBSC must also Publicly Report within twenty days the results of final appeal decisions concerning anti-doping rule violations, including the information described above.

14.3.3 In any case where it is determined, after a hearing or appeal, that the Athlete or other Person did not commit an anti-doping rule violation, the decision may be Publicly Disclosed only with the consent of the Athlete or other Person who is the subject of the decision. WBSC shall use reasonable efforts to obtain such consent. If consent is obtained, WBSC shall Publicly Disclose the decision in its entirety or in such redacted form as the Athlete or other Person may approve.

14.3.4 Publication shall be accomplished at a minimum by placing the required information on the WBSC’s website or publishing it through other means and leaving the information up for the longer of one month or the duration of any period of Ineligibility.

14.3.5 Neither WBSC, nor its National Federations, nor any official of either body, shall publicly comment on the specific facts of any pending case (as opposed to general description of process and science) except in response to public comments attributed to the Athlete or other Person against whom an anti-doping rule violation is asserted, or their representatives.

14.3.6 The mandatory Public Reporting required in Article 14.3.2 shall not be required where the Athlete or other Person who has been found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation is a Minor. Any optional Public Reporting in a case involving a Minor shall be proportionate to the facts and circumstances of the case.

14.3.7 Except where expressly stated otherwise, a notice under these Anti-Doping Rules shall only be effective if it is in writing. Faxes and email are permitted.

14.3.8 Any notice given under these Anti-Doping Rules shall, in the absence of earlier receipt, be deemed to have been duly given as follows:
a) if delivered personally, on delivery;
b) if sent by first class post, two clear business days after the date of
posting;
c) if sent by airmail, six clear business days after the date of posting;
d)if sent by facsimile, at the expiration of 48 hours after the time it was sent;
e) if sent by email, at the time at which it was sent.

14.4 Statistical Reporting

WBSC shall publish at least annually a general statistical report of its Doping Control activities, with a copy provided to WADA. WBSC may also publish reports showing the name of each Athlete tested and the date of each Testing.

14.5 Doping Control Information Clearinghouse

To facilitate coordinated test distribution planning and to avoid unnecessary duplication in Testing by the various Anti-Doping Organizations, WBSC shall report all In-Competition and Out-of-Competition tests on such Athletes to the WADA clearinghouse, using ADAMS, as soon as possible after such tests have been conducted. This information will be made accessible, where appropriate and in accordance with the applicable rules, to the Athlete, the Athlete’s National Anti-Doping Organization and any other Anti-Doping Organizations with Testing authority over the Athlete.

14.6 Data Privacy

14.6.1 WBSC may collect, store, process or disclose personal information relating to Athletes and other Persons where necessary and appropriate to conduct their anti-doping activities under the Code, the International Standards (including specifically the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information) and these Anti-Doping Rules.

14.6.2 Any Participant who submits information including personal data to any Person in accordance with these Anti-Doping Rules shall be deemed to have agreed, pursuant to applicable data protection laws and otherwise, that such information may be collected, processed, disclosed and used by such Person for the purposes of the implementation of these Anti-Doping Rules, in accordance with the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information and otherwise as required to implement these Anti-Doping Rules.

ARTICLE 15 APPLICATION AND RECOGNITION OF DECISIONS

15.1 Subject to the right to appeal provided in Article 13, Testing, hearing results or other final adjudications of any Signatory which are consistent with the Code and are within that Signatory’s authority shall be applicable worldwide and shall be recognized and respected by WBSC and all its National Federations.

[Comment to Article 15.1: The extent of recognition of TUE decisions of other Anti-Doping Organizations shall be determined by Article 4.4 and the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions.]

15.2 WBSC and its National Federations shall recognize the measures taken by other bodies which have not accepted the Code if the rules of those bodies are otherwise consistent with the Code.

[Comment to Article 15.2: Where the decision of a body that has not accepted the Code is in some respects Code compliant and in other respects not Code compliant, WBSC and its National Federations shall attempt to apply the decision in harmony with the principles of the Code. For example, if in a process consistent with the Code a non-Signatory has found an Athlete to have committed an anti-doping rule violation on account of the presence of a Prohibited Substance in his or her body but the period of Ineligibility applied is shorter than the period provided for in these Anti-Doping Rules, then WBSC shall recognize the finding of an anti-doping rule violation and may conduct a hearing consistent with Article 8 to determine whether the longer period of Ineligibility provided in these Anti-Doping Rules should be imposed.]

15.3 Subject to the right to appeal provided in Article 13, any decision of WBSC regarding a violation of these Anti-Doping Rules shall be recognized by all National Federations, which shall take all necessary action to render such decision effective.

ARTICLE 16 INCORPORATION OF WBSC ANTI-DOPING RULES AND OBLIGATIONS OF NATIONAL FEDERATIONS

16.1 All National Federations and their members shall comply with these Anti-Doping Rules. All National Federations and other members shall include in their regulations the provisions necessary to ensure that WBSC may enforce these Anti-Doping Rules directly as against Athletes under their anti-doping jurisdiction (including National-Level Athletes). These Anti-Doping Rules shall also be incorporated either directly or by reference into each National Federation’s rules so that the National Federation may enforce them itself directly as against Athletes under its anti-doping jurisdiction (including National-Level Athletes).

16.2 All National Federations shall establish rules requiring all Athletes and each Athlete Support Personnel who participates as coach, trainer, manager, team staff, official, medical or paramedical personnel in a Competition or activity authorized or organized by a National Federation or one of its member organizations to agree to be bound by these Anti-Doping Rules and to submit to the results management authority of the Anti-Doping Organization responsible under the Code as a condition of such participation.

16.3 All National Federations shall report any information suggesting or relating to an anti-doping rule violation to WBSC and to their National Anti-Doping Organizations, and shall cooperate with investigations conducted by any Anti-Doping Organization with authority to conduct the investigation.

16.4 All National Federations shall have disciplinary rules in place to prevent Athlete Support Personnel who are Using Prohibited Substances or Prohibited Methods without valid justification from providing support to Athletes under the jurisdiction of WBSC or the National Federation.

16.5 All National Federations shall be required to conduct anti-doping education in coordination with their National Anti-Doping Organizations.

ARTICLE 17 STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

No anti-doping rule violation proceeding may be commenced against an Athlete or other Person unless he or she has been notified of the anti-doping rule violation as provided in Article 7, or notification has been reasonably attempted, within ten years from the date the violation is asserted to have occurred.

ARTICLE 18 WBSC COMPLIANCE REPORTS TO WADA

WBSC will report to WADA on WBSC’s compliance with the Code in accordance with Article 23.5.2 of the Code.

ARTICLE 19 EDUCATION

WBSC shall plan, implement, evaluate and monitor information, education and prevention programs for doping-free sport on at least the issues listed at Article 18.2 of the Code, and shall support active participation by Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel in such programs.

19.1 WBSC may request that Athletes perform educational activities before and/or during their participation to selected Events (ex: Youth World Championships). The list of Events in which Athletes will be required to perform educational activities as a condition of participation will be published in the WBSC website.
The Athletes who have not performed the educational activities will be asked to provide valid justifications to have failed to participate in the educational activity.
WBSC Anti-Doping Administrator or its delegate should evaluate those justifications on a case by case basis and may decide to request to impose disciplinary sanctions if it deemed appropriate.

ARTICLE 20 AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATION OF ANTI-DOPING RULES

20.1 These Anti-Doping Rules may be amended from time to time by WBSC.

20.2 These Anti-Doping Rules shall be interpreted as an independent and autonomous text and not by reference to existing law or statutes.

20.3 The headings used for the various Parts and Articles of these Anti-Doping Rules are for convenience only and shall not be deemed part of the substance of these Anti-Doping Rules or to affect in any way the language of the provisions to which they refer.

20.4 The Code and the International Standards shall be considered integral parts of these Anti-Doping Rules and shall prevail in case of conflict.

20.5 These Anti-Doping Rules have been adopted pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Code and shall be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with applicable provisions of the Code. The Introduction shall be considered an integral part of these Anti-Doping Rules.

20.6 The comments annotating various provisions of the Code and these Anti-Doping Rules shall be used to interpret these Anti-Doping Rules.

20.7 These Anti-Doping Rules have come into full force and effect on [1 January 2015] (the “Effective Date”). They shall not apply retroactively to matters pending before the Effective Date; provided, however, that:

20.7.1 Anti-doping rule violations taking place prior to the Effective Date count as “first violations” or “second violations” for purposes of determining sanctions under Article 10 for violations taking place after the Effective Date.

20.7.2 The retrospective periods in which prior violations can be considered for purposes of multiple violations under Article 10.7.5 and the statute of limitations set forth in Article 17 are procedural rules and should be applied retroactively; provided, however, that Article 17 shall only be applied retroactively if the statute of limitations period has not already expired by the Effective Date. Otherwise, with respect to any anti-doping rule violation case which is pending as of the Effective Date and any anti-doping rule violation case brought after the Effective Date based on an anti-doping rule violation which occurred prior to the Effective Date, the case shall be governed by the substantive anti-doping rules in effect at the time the alleged anti-doping rule violation occurred unless the panel hearing the case determines the principle of “lex mitior” appropriately applies under the circumstances of the case.

20.7.3 Any Article 2.4 whereabouts failure (whether a Filing Failure or a Missed Test, as those terms are defined in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations) prior to the Effective Date shall be carried forward and may be relied upon, prior to expiry, in accordance with the International Standard for Testing and Investigation, but it shall be deemed to have expired 12 months after it occurred.

20.7.4 With respect to cases where a final decision finding an anti-doping rule violation has been rendered prior to the Effective Date, but the Athlete or other Person is still serving the period of Ineligibility as of the Effective Date, the Athlete or other Person may apply to the Anti-Doping Organization which had results management responsibility for the anti-doping rule violation to consider a reduction in the period of Ineligibility in light of these Anti-Doping Rules. Such application must be made before the period of Ineligibility has expired. The decision rendered may be appealed pursuant to Article 13.2. These Anti-Doping Rules shall have no application to any case where a final decision finding an anti-doping rule violation has been rendered and the period of Ineligibility has expired.

20.7.5 For purposes of assessing the period of Ineligibility for a second violation under Article 10.7.1, where the sanction for the first violation was determined based on rules in force prior to the Effective Date, the period of Ineligibility which would have been assessed for that first violation had these Anti-Doping Rules been applicable, shall be applied.

ARTICLE 21 INTERPRETATION OF THE CODE

21.1 The official text of the Code shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.

21.2 The comments annotating various provisions of the Code shall be used to interpret the Code.

21.3 The Code shall be interpreted as an independent and autonomous text and not by reference to the existing law or statutes of the Signatories or governments.

21.4 The headings used for the various Parts and Articles of the Code are for convenience only and shall not be deemed part of the substance of the Code or to affect in any way the language of the provisions to which they refer.

21.5 The Code shall not apply retroactively to matters pending before the date the Code is accepted by a Signatory and implemented in its rules. However, pre-Code anti-doping rule violations would continue to count as “first violations” or “second violations” for purposes of determining sanctions under Article 10 for subsequent post-Code violations.

21.6 The Purpose, Scope and Organization of the World Anti-Doping Program and the Code and Appendix 1, Definitions, and Appendix 2, Examples of the Application of Article 10, shall be considered integral parts of the Code.

ARTICLE 22 ADDITIONAL ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF ATHLETES AND OTHER PERSONS

22.1 Roles and Responsibilities of Athletes

22.1.1 To be knowledgeable of and comply with these Anti-Doping Rules.

22.1.2 To be available for Sample collection at all times.

[Comment to Article 22.1.2: With due regard to an Athlete’s human rights and privacy, legitimate anti-doping considerations sometimes require Sample collection late at night or early in the morning. For example, it is known that some Athletes use low doses of EPO during these hours so that it will be undetectable in the morning.]

22.1.3 To take responsibility, in the context of anti-doping, for what they ingest and Use.

22.1.4 To inform medical personnel of their obligation not to Use Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods and to take responsibility to make sure that any medical treatment received does not violate these Anti-Doping Rules.

22.1.5 To disclose to their National Anti-Doping Organization and to WBSC any decision by a non-Signatory finding that the Athlete committed an anti-doping rule violation within the previous ten years.

22.1.6 To cooperate with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations.

22.1.7 Failure by any Athlete to cooperate in full with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations may result in a charge of misconduct under WBSC’s disciplinary rules/code of conduct.

22.2 Roles and Responsibilities of Athlete Support Personnel

22.2.1 To be knowledgeable of and comply with these Anti-Doping Rules.

22.2.2 To cooperate with the Athlete Testing program.

22.2.3 To use his or her influence on Athlete values and behavior to foster anti-doping attitudes.

22.2.4 To disclose to his or her National Anti-Doping Organization and to WBSC any decision by a non-Signatory finding that he or she committed an anti-doping rule violation within the previous ten years.

22.2.5 To cooperate with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations.

22.2.6 Failure by any Athlete Support Personnel to cooperate in full with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations may result in a charge of misconduct under WBSC’s disciplinary rules/code of conduct.

22.2.7 Athlete Support Personnel shall not Use or Possess any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method without valid justification.

22.2.8 Use or Possession of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method by an Athlete Support Personnel without valid justification may result in a charge of misconduct under WBSC’s disciplinary rules/code of conduct.

APPENDIX 1 DEFINITIONS

ADAMS: The Anti-Doping Administration and Management System is a Web-based database management tool for data entry, storage, sharing, and reporting designed to assist stakeholders and WADA in their anti-doping operations in conjunction with data protection legislation.

Administration: Providing, supplying, supervising, facilitating, or otherwise participating in the Use or Attempted Use by another Person of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method. However, this definition shall not include the actions of bona fide medical personnel involving a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or other acceptable justification and shall not include actions involving Prohibited Substances which are not prohibited in Out-of-Competition Testing unless the circumstances as a whole demonstrate that such Prohibited Substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or are intended to enhance sport performance.

Adverse Analytical Finding: A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved laboratory that, consistent with the International Standard for Laboratories and related Technical Documents, identifies in a Sample the presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or evidence of the Use of a Prohibited Method.

Adverse Passport Finding: A report identified as an Adverse Passport Finding as described in the applicable International Standards.

Anti-Doping Organization: A Signatory that is responsible for adopting rules for initiating, implementing or enforcing any part of the Doping Control process. This includes, for example, the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, other Major Event Organizations that conduct Testing at their Events, WADA, International Federations, and National Anti-Doping Organizations.

Athlete: Any Person who competes in sport at the international level (as defined by each International Federation), or the national level (as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization). An Anti-Doping Organization has discretion to apply anti-doping rules to an Athlete who is neither an International-Level Athlete nor a National-Level Athlete, and thus to bring them within the definition of “Athlete.” In relation to Athletes who are neither International-Level nor National-Level Athletes, an Anti-Doping Organization may elect to: conduct limited Testing or no Testing at all; analyze Samples for less than the full menu of Prohibited Substances; require limited or no whereabouts information; or not require advance TUEs. However, if an Article 2.1, 2.3 or 2.5 anti-doping rule violation is committed by any Athlete over whom an Anti-Doping Organization has authority who competes below the international or national level, then the Consequences set forth in the Code (except Article 14.3.2) must be applied. For purposes of Article 2.8 and Article 2.9 and for purposes of anti-doping information and education, any Person who participates in sport under the authority of any Signatory, government, or other sports organization accepting the Code is an Athlete.

[Comment: This definition makes it clear that all International- and National-Level Athletes are subject to the anti-doping rules of the Code, with the precise definitions of international- and national-level sport to be set forth in the anti-doping rules of the International Federations and National Anti-Doping Organizations, respectively. The definition also allows each National Anti-Doping Organization, if it chooses to do so, to expand its anti-doping program beyond International- or National-Level Athletes to competitors at lower levels of Competition or to individuals who engage in fitness activities but do not compete at all. Thus, a National Anti-Doping Organization could, for example, elect to test recreational-level competitors but not require advance TUEs. But an anti-doping rule violation involving an Adverse Analytical Finding or Tampering results in all of the Consequences provided for in the Code (with the exception of Article 14.3.2). The decision on whether Consequences apply to recreational-level Athletes who engage in fitness activities but never compete is left to the National Anti-Doping Organization. In the same manner, a Major Event Organization holding an Event only for masters-level competitors could elect to test the competitors but not analyze Samples for the full menu of Prohibited Substances. Competitors at all levels of Competition should receive the benefit of anti-doping information and education.]

Athlete Biological Passport: The program and methods of gathering and collating data as described in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations and International Standard for Laboratories.

Athlete Support Personnel: Any coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, official, medical, paramedical personnel, parent or any other Person working with, treating or assisting an Athlete participating in or preparing for sports Competition.

Attempt: Purposely engaging in conduct that constitutes a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in the commission of an anti-doping rule violation. Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on an Attempt to commit a violation if the Person renounces the Attempt prior to it being discovered by a third party not involved in the Attempt.

Atypical Finding: A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved laboratory which requires further investigation as provided by the International Standard for Laboratories or related Technical Documents prior to the determination of an Adverse Analytical Finding.

Atypical Passport Finding: A report described as an Atypical Passport Finding as described in the applicable International Standards.

CAS: The Court of Arbitration for Sport.

Code: The World Anti-Doping Code.

Competition: A single race, match, game or singular sport contest. For stage races and other sport contests where prizes are awarded on a daily or other interim basis the distinction between a Competition and an Event will be as provided in the rules of the applicable International Federation.

Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations (“Consequences”): An Athlete’s or other Person’s violation of an anti-doping rule may result in one or more of the following: (a) Disqualification means the Athlete’s results in a particular Competition or Event are invalidated, with all resulting Consequences including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes; (b) Ineligibility means the Athlete or other Person is barred on account of an anti-doping rule violation for a specified period of time from participating in any Competition or other activity or funding as provided in Article 10.12.1; (c) Provisional Suspension means the Athlete or other Person is barred temporarily from participating in any Competition or activity prior to the final decision at a hearing conducted under Article 8; (d) Financial Consequences means a financial sanction imposed for an anti-doping rule violation or to recover costs associated with an anti-doping rule violation; and (e) Public Disclosure or Public Reporting means the dissemination or distribution of information to the general public or Persons beyond those Persons entitled to earlier notification in accordance with Article 14. Teams in Team Sports may also be subject to Consequences as provided in Article 11 of the Code.

Contaminated Product: A product that contains a Prohibited Substance that is not disclosed on the product label or in information available in a reasonable Internet search.

Disqualification: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Doping Control: All steps and processes from test distribution planning through to ultimate disposition of any appeal including all steps and processes in between such as provision of whereabouts information, Sample collection and handling, laboratory analysis, TUEs, results management and hearings.

Event: A series of individual Competitions conducted together under one ruling body (e.g., the Olympic Games, WBSC World Championships, or Pan American Games).

Event Venues: Those venues so designated by the ruling body for the Event. For the sport of WBSC, the Event Venues are considered the official training, accommodation and Competition venues for the Event.

Event Period: The time between the beginning and end of an Event, as established by the ruling body of the Event.

Fault: Fault is any breach of duty or any lack of care appropriate to a particular situation. Factors to be taken into consideration in assessing an Athlete or other Person’s degree of Fault include, for example, the Athlete’s or other Person’s experience, whether the Athlete or other Person is a Minor, special considerations such as impairment, the degree of risk that should have been perceived by the Athlete and the level of care and investigation exercised by the Athlete in relation to what should have been the perceived level of risk. In assessing the Athlete’s or other Person’s degree of Fault, the circumstances considered must be specific and relevant to explain the Athlete’s or other Person’s departure from the expected standard of behavior. Thus, for example, the fact that an Athlete would lose the opportunity to earn large sums of money during a period of Ineligibility, or the fact that the Athlete only has a short time left in his or her career, or the timing of the sporting calendar, would not be relevant factors to be considered in reducing the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.5.1 or 10.5.2.

[Comment: The criteria for assessing an Athlete’s degree of Fault is the same under all Articles where Fault is to be considered. However, under Article 10.5.2, no reduction of sanction is appropriate unless, when the degree of Fault is assessed, the conclusion is that No Significant Fault or Negligence on the part of the Athlete or other Person was involved.]

Financial Consequences: see Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations, above.

In-Competition: “In-Competition” means the period commencing twelve hours before a Competition in which the Athlete is scheduled to participate through the end of such Competition and the Sample collection process related to such Competition.
[Comment: An International Federation or ruling body for an Event may establish an “In-Competition” period that is different than the Event Period.]

Independent Observer Program: A team of observers, under the supervision of WADA, who observe and provide guidance on the Doping Control process at certain Events and report on their observations.

Individual Sport: Any sport that is not a Team Sport.

Ineligibility: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

International Event: An Event or Competition where the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, an International Federation, a Major Event Organization, or another international sport organization is the ruling body for the Event or appoints the technical officials for the Event.

International-Level Athlete: Athletes who compete in sport at the international level, as defined by each International Federation, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. For the sport of WBSC International-Level Athletes are defined as set out in the Scope section of the Introduction to these Anti-Doping Rules.

[Comment: Consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, the International Federation is free to determine the criteria it will use to classify Athletes as International-Level Athletes, e.g., by ranking, by participation in particular International Events, by type of license, etc. However, it must publish those criteria in clear and concise form, so that Athletes are able to ascertain quickly and easily when they will become classified as International-Level Athletes. For example, if the criteria include participation in certain International Events, then the International Federation must publish a list of those International Events.]

International Standard: A standard adopted by WADA in support of the Code. Compliance with an International Standard (as opposed to another alternative standard, practice or procedure) shall be sufficient to conclude that the procedures addressed by the International Standard were performed properly. International Standards shall include any Technical Documents issued pursuant to the International Standard.

Major Event Organizations: The continental associations of National Olympic Committees and other international multi-sport organizations that function as the ruling body for any continental, regional or other International Event.

Marker: A compound, group of compounds or biological variable(s) that indicates the Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.

Metabolite: Any substance produced by a biotransformation process.

Minor: A natural Person who has not reached the age of eighteen years.

National Anti-Doping Organization: The entity(ies) designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement anti-doping rules, direct the collection of Samples, the management of test results, and the conduct of hearings at the national level. If this designation has not been made by the competent public authority(ies), the entity shall be the country’s National Olympic Committee or its designee.

National Event: A sport Event or Competition involving International- or National-Level Athletes that is not an International Event.

National Federation: A national or regional entity which is a member of or is recognized by WBSC as the entity governing WBSC’s sport in that nation or region.

National-Level Athlete: Athletes who compete in sport at the national level, as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

National Olympic Committee: The organization recognized by the International Olympic Committee. The term National Olympic Committee shall also include the National Sport Confederation in those countries where the National Sport Confederation assumes typical National Olympic Committee responsibilities in the anti-doping area.

No Fault or Negligence: The Athlete or other Person’s establishing that he or she did not know or suspect, and could not reasonably have known or suspected even with the exercise of utmost caution, that he or she had Used or been administered the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or otherwise violated an anti-doping rule. Except in the case of a Minor, for any violation of Article 2.1, the Athlete must also establish how the Prohibited Substance entered his or her system.

No Significant Fault or Negligence: The Athlete or other Person’s establishing that his or her Fault or negligence, when viewed in the totality of the circumstances and taking into account the criteria for No Fault or negligence, was not significant in relationship to the anti-doping rule violation. Except in the case of a Minor, for any violation of Article 2.1, the Athlete must also establish how the Prohibited Substance entered his or her system.

[Comment: For Cannabinoids, an Athlete may establish No Significant Fault or Negligence by clearly demonstrating that the context of the Use was unrelated to sport performance.]

Out-of-Competition: Any period which is not In-Competition.

Participant: Any Athlete or Athlete Support Person.

Person: A natural Person or an organization or other entity.

Possession: The actual, physical Possession, or the constructive Possession (which shall be found only if the Person has exclusive control or intends to exercise control over the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or the premises in which a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method exists); provided, however, that if the Person does not have exclusive control over the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or the premises in which a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method exists, constructive Possession shall only be found if the Person knew about the presence of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method and intended to exercise control over it. Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on Possession if, prior to receiving notification of any kind that the Person has committed an anti-doping rule violation, the Person has taken concrete action demonstrating that the Person never intended to have Possession and has renounced Possession by explicitly declaring it to an Anti-Doping Organization. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this definition, the purchase (including by any electronic or other means) of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method constitutes Possession by the Person who makes the purchase.

[Comment: Under this definition, steroids found in an Athlete’s car would constitute a violation unless the Athlete establishes that someone else used the car; in that event, the Anti-Doping Organization must establish that, even though the Athlete did not have exclusive control over the car, the Athlete knew about the steroids and intended to have control over the steroids. Similarly, in the example of steroids found in a home medicine cabinet under the joint control of an Athlete and spouse, the Anti-Doping Organization must establish that the Athlete knew the steroids were in the cabinet and that the Athlete intended to exercise control over the steroids. The act of purchasing a Prohibited Substance alone constitutes Possession, even where, for example, the product does not arrive, is received by someone else, or is sent to a third party address.]

Prohibited List: The List identifying the Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods.

Prohibited Method: Any method so described on the Prohibited List.

Prohibited Substance: Any substance, or class of substances, so described on the Prohibited List.

Provisional Hearing: For purposes of Article 7.9, an expedited abbreviated hearing occurring prior to a hearing under Article 8 that provides the Athlete with notice and an opportunity to be heard in either written or oral form.

[Comment: A Provisional Hearing is only a preliminary proceeding which may not involve a full review of the facts of the case. Following a Provisional Hearing, the Athlete remains entitled to a subsequent full hearing on the merits of the case. By contrast, an “expedited hearing,” as that term is used in Article 7.9, is a full hearing on the merits conducted on an expedited time schedule.]

Provisional Suspension: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Publicly Disclose or Publicly Report: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Regional Anti-Doping Organization: A regional entity designated by member countries to coordinate and manage delegated areas of their national anti-doping programs, which may include the adoption and implementation of anti-doping rules, the planning and collection of Samples, the management of results, the review of TUEs, the conduct of hearings, and the conduct of educational programs at a regional level.

Registered Testing Pool: The pool of highest-priority Athletes established separately at the international level by International Federations and at the national level by National Anti-Doping Organizations, who are subject to focused In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing as part of that International Federation’s or National Anti-Doping Organization’s test distribution plan and therefore are required to provide whereabouts information as provided in Article 5.6 of the Code and the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Sample or Specimen: Any biological material collected for the purposes of Doping Control.

[Comment: It has sometimes been claimed that the collection of blood Samples violates the tenets of certain religious or cultural groups. It has been determined that there is no basis for any such claim.]

Signatories: Those entities signing the Code and agreeing to comply with the Code, as provided in Article 23 of the Code.

Specified Substance: See Article 4.2.2.

Strict Liability: The rule which provides that under Article 2.1 and Article 2.2, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, negligence, or knowing Use on the Athlete’s part be demonstrated by the Anti-Doping Organization in order to establish an anti-doping rule violation.

Substantial Assistance: For purposes of Article 10.6.1, a Person providing Substantial Assistance must: (1) fully disclose in a signed written statement all information he or she possesses in relation to anti-doping rule violations, and (2) fully cooperate with the investigation and adjudication of any case related to that information, including, for example, presenting testimony at a hearing if requested to do so by an Anti-Doping Organization or hearing panel. Further, the information provided must be credible and must comprise an important part of any case which is initiated or, if no case is initiated, must have provided a sufficient basis on which a case could have been brought.

Tampering: Altering for an improper purpose or in an improper way; bringing improper influence to bear; interfering improperly; obstructing, misleading or engaging in any fraudulent conduct to alter results or prevent normal procedures from occurring.

Target Testing: Selection of specific Athletes for Testing based on criteria set forth in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Team Sport: A sport in which the substitution of players is permitted during a Competition.

Testing: The parts of the Doping Control process involving test distribution planning, Sample collection, Sample handling, and Sample transport to the laboratory.

Trafficking: Selling, giving, transporting, sending, delivering or distributing (or Possessing for any such purpose) a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method (either physically or by any electronic or other means) by an Athlete, Athlete Support Person or any other Person subject to the jurisdiction of an Anti-Doping Organization to any third party; provided, however, this definition shall not include the actions of “bona fide” medical personnel involving a Prohibited Substance used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or other acceptable justification, and shall not include actions involving Prohibited Substances which are not prohibited in Out-of-Competition Testing unless the circumstances as a whole demonstrate such Prohibited Substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or are intended to enhance sport performance.

TUE: Therapeutic Use Exemption, as described in Article 4.4.

UNESCO Convention: The International Convention against Doping in Sport adopted by the 33rd session of the UNESCO General Conference on 19 October, 2005 including any and all amendments adopted by the States Parties to the Convention and the Conference of Parties to the International Convention against Doping in Sport.

Use: The utilization, application, ingestion, injection or consumption by any means whatsoever of any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.

WADA: The World Anti-Doping Agency.

[Comment: Defined terms shall include their plural and possessive forms, as well as those terms used as other parts of speech].

APPENDIX 2 EXAMPLES OF THE APPLICATION OF ARTICLE 10

EXAMPLE 1.

Facts: An Adverse Analytical Finding results from the presence of an anabolic steroid in an In-Competition test (Article 2.1); the Athlete promptly admits the anti-doping rule violation; the Athlete establishes No Significant Fault or Negligence; and the Athlete provides Substantial Assistance.

Application of Consequences:

1. The starting point would be Article 10.2. Because the Athlete is deemed to have No Significant Fault that would be sufficient corroborating evidence (Articles 10.2.1.1 and 10.2.3) that the anti-doping rule violation was not intentional, the period of Ineligibility would thus be two years, not four years (Article 10.2.2).

2. In a second step, the panel would analyze whether the Fault-related reductions (Articles 10.4 and 10.5) apply. Based on No Significant Fault or Negligence (Article 10.5.2) since the anabolic steroid is not a Specified Substance, the applicable range of sanctions would be reduced to a range of two years to one year (minimum one-half of the two year sanction). The panel would then determine the applicable period of Ineligibility within this range based on the Athlete’s degree of Fault. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel would otherwise impose a period of Ineligibility of 16 months.)

3. In a third step, the panel would assess the possibility for suspension or reduction under Article 10.6 (reductions not related to Fault). In this case, only Article 10.6.1 (Substantial Assistance) applies. (Article 10.6.3, Prompt Admission, is not applicable because the period of Ineligibility is already below the two-year minimum set forth in Article 10.6.3.) Based on Substantial Assistance, the period of Ineligibility could be suspended by three-quarters of 16 months.* The minimum period of Ineligibility would thus be four months. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel suspends ten months and the period of Ineligibility would thus be six months.)

4. Under Article 10.11, the period of Ineligibility, in principle, starts on the date of the final hearing decision. However, because the Athlete promptly admitted the anti-doping rule violation, the period of Ineligibility could start as early as the date of Sample collection, but in any event the Athlete would have to serve at least one-half of the Ineligibility period (i.e., three months) after the date of the hearing decision (Article 10.11.2).

5. Since the Adverse Analytical Finding was committed in a Competition, the panel would have to automatically Disqualify the result obtained in that Competition (Article 9).

6. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of the Sample collection until the start of the period of Ineligibility would also be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

7. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

8. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training one and one-half months before the end of the period of Ineligibility.

EXAMPLE 2.

Facts: An Adverse Analytical Finding results from the presence of a stimulant which is a Specified Substance in an In-Competition test (Article 2.1); the Anti-Doping Organization is able to establish that the Athlete committed the anti-doping rule violation intentionally; the Athlete is not able to establish that the Prohibited Substance was Used Out-of-Competition in a context unrelated to sport performance; the Athlete does not promptly admit the anti-doping rule violation as alleged; the Athlete does provide Substantial Assistance.

Application of Consequences:

1. The starting point would be Article 10.2. Because the Anti-Doping Organization can establish that the anti-doping rule violation was committed intentionally and the Athlete is unable to establish that the substance was permitted Out-of-Competition and the Use was unrelated to the Athlete’s sport performance (Article 10.2.3), the period of Ineligibility would be four years (Article 10.2.1.2).

2. Because the violation was intentional, there is no room for a reduction based on Fault (no application of Articles 10.4 and 10.5). Based on Substantial Assistance, the sanction could be suspended by up to three-quarters of the four years.* The minimum period of Ineligibility would thus be one year.

3. Under Article 10.11, the period of Ineligibility would start on the date of the final hearing decision.

4. Since the Adverse Analytical Finding was committed in a Competition, the panel would automatically Disqualify the result obtained in the Competition.

5. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of Sample collection until the start of the period of Ineligibility would also be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

6. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

7. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training two months before the end of the period of Ineligibility.

EXAMPLE 3.

Facts: An Adverse Analytical Finding results from the presence of an anabolic steroid in an Out-of-Competition test (Article 2.1); the Athlete establishes No Significant Fault or Negligence; the Athlete also establishes that the Adverse Analytical Finding was caused by a Contaminated Product.

Application of Consequences:

1. The starting point would be Article 10.2. Because the Athlete can establish through corroborating evidence that he did not commit the anti-doping rule violation intentionally, i.e., he had No Significant Fault in Using a Contaminated Product (Articles 10.2.1.1 and 10.2.3), the period of Ineligibility would be two years (Articles 10.2.2).

2. In a second step, the panel would analyze the Fault-related possibilities for reductions (Articles 10.4 and 10.5). Since the Athlete can establish that the anti-doping rule violation was caused by a Contaminated Product and that he acted with No Significant Fault or Negligence based on Article 10.5.1.2, the applicable range for the period of Ineligibility would be reduced to a range of two years to a reprimand. The panel would determine the period of Ineligibility within this range, based on the Athlete’s degree of Fault. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel would otherwise impose a period of Ineligibility of four months.)

3. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of Sample collection until the start of the period of Ineligibility would be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

4. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

5. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training one month before the end of the period of Ineligibility.

EXAMPLE 4.

Facts: An Athlete who has never had an Adverse Analytical Finding or been confronted with an anti-doping rule violation spontaneously admits that she Used an anabolic steroid to enhance her performance. The Athlete also provides Substantial Assistance.

Application of Consequences:

1. Since the violation was intentional, Article 10.2.1 would be applicable and the basic period of Ineligibility imposed would be four years.

2. There is no room for Fault-related reductions of the period of Ineligibility (no application of Articles 10.4 and 10.5).

3. Based on the Athlete’s spontaneous admission (Article 10.6.2) alone, the period of Ineligibility could be reduced by up to one-half of the four years. Based on the Athlete’s Substantial Assistance (Article 10.6.1) alone, the period of Ineligibility could be suspended up to three-quarters of the four years.* Under Article 10.6.4, in considering the spontaneous admission and Substantial Assistance together, the most the sanction could be reduced or suspended would be up to three-quarters of the four years. The minimum period of Ineligibility would be one year.

4. The period of Ineligibility, in principle, starts on the day of the final hearing decision (Article 10.11). If the spontaneous admission is factored into the reduction of the period of Ineligibility, an early start of the period of Ineligibility under Article 10.11.2 would not be permitted. The provision seeks to prevent an Athlete from benefitting twice from the same set of circumstances. However, if the period of Ineligibility was suspended solely on the basis of Substantial Assistance, Article 10.11.2 may still be applied, and the period of Ineligibility started as early as the Athlete’s last Use of the anabolic steroid.

5. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of the anti-doping rule violation until the start of the period of Ineligibility would be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

6. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

7. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training two months before the end of the period of Ineligibility.

EXAMPLE 5.

Facts:

An Athlete Support Person helps to circumvent a period of Ineligibility imposed on an Athlete by entering him into a Competition under a false name. The Athlete Support Person comes forward with this anti-doping rule violation (Article 2.9) spontaneously before being notified of an anti-doping rule violation by an Anti-Doping Organization.

Application of Consequences:

1. According to Article 10.3.4, the period of Ineligibility would be from two up to four years, depending on the seriousness of the violation. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel would otherwise impose a period of Ineligibility of three years.)

2. There is no room for Fault-related reductions since intent is an element of the anti-doping rule violation in Article 2.9 (see comment to Article 10.5.2).

3. According to Article 10.6.2, provided that the admission is the only reliable evidence, the period of Ineligibility may be reduced down to one-half. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel would impose a period of Ineligibility of 18 months.)

4. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed unless the Athlete Support Person is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

EXAMPLE 6.

Facts: An Athlete was sanctioned for a first anti-doping rule violation with a period of Ineligibility of 14 months, of which four months were suspended because of Substantial Assistance. Now, the Athlete commits a second anti-doping rule violation resulting from the presence of a stimulant which is not a Specified Substance in an In-Competition test (Article 2.1); the Athlete establishes No Significant Fault or Negligence; and the Athlete provided Substantial Assistance. If this were a first violation, the panel would sanction the Athlete with a period of Ineligibility of 16 months and suspend six months for Substantial Assistance.

Application of Consequences:

1. Article 10.7 is applicable to the second anti-doping rule violation because Article 10.7.4.1 and Article 10.7.5 apply.

2. Under Article 10.7.1, the period of Ineligibility would be the greater of:

(a) six months;
(b) one-half of the period of Ineligibility imposed for the first anti-doping rule violation without taking into account any reduction under Article 10.6 (in this example, that would equal one-half of 14 months, which is seven months); or
(c) twice the period of Ineligibility otherwise applicable to the second anti-doping rule violation treated as if it were a first violation, without taking into account any reduction under Article 10.6 (in this example, that would equal two times 16 months, which is 32 months).

Thus, the period of Ineligibility for the second violation would be the greater of (a), (b) and (c), which is a period of Ineligibility of 32 months.

3. In a next step, the panel would assess the possibility for suspension or reduction under Article 10.6 (non-Fault-related reductions). In the case of the second violation, only Article 10.6.1 (Substantial Assistance) applies. Based on Substantial Assistance, the period of Ineligibility could be suspended by three-quarters of 32 months.* The minimum period of Ineligibility would thus be eight months. (Assume for purposes of illustration in this example that the panel suspends eight months of the period of Ineligibility for Substantial Assistance, thus reducing the period of Ineligibility imposed to two years.)

4. Since the Adverse Analytical Finding was committed in a Competition, the panel would automatically Disqualify the result obtained in the Competition.

5. According to Article 10.8, all results obtained by the Athlete subsequent to the date of Sample collection until the start of the period of Ineligibility would also be Disqualified unless fairness requires otherwise.

6. The information referred to in Article 14.3.2 must be Publicly Disclosed, unless the Athlete is a Minor, since this is a mandatory part of each sanction (Article 10.13).

7. The Athlete is not allowed to participate in any capacity in a Competition or other sport-related activity under the authority of any Signatory or its affiliates during the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility (Article 10.12.1). However, the Athlete may return to train with a team or to use the facilities of a club or other member organization of a Signatory or its affiliates during the shorter of: (a) the last two months of the Athlete’s period of Ineligibility, or (b) the last one-quarter of the period of Ineligibility imposed (Article 10.12.2). Thus, the Athlete would be allowed to return to training two months before the end of the period of Ineligibility
______________________________

* Upon the approval of WADA in exceptional circumstances, the maximum suspension of the period of Ineligibility for Substantial Assistance may be greater than three-quarters, and reporting and publication may be delayed.

APPENDIX 3 Consent Form

As a member of [National Federation] and/or a participant in an event authorized or recognized by [National Federation or International Federation], I hereby declare as follows:

I acknowledge that I am bound by, and confirm that I shall comply with, all of the provisions of WBSC Anti-Doping Rules (as amended from time to time) and the International Standards issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency and published on its website.

I acknowledge the authority of WBSC [and its member National Federations and/or National Anti-Doping Organizations] under the WBSC Anti-Doping Rules to enforce, to manage results under, and to impose sanctions in accordance with, the WBSC Anti-Doping Rules.

I also acknowledge and agree that any dispute arising out of a decision made pursuant to the WBSC Anti-Doping Rules, after exhaustion of the process expressly provided for in the WBSC Anti-Doping Rules, may be appealed exclusively as provided in Article 13 of the WBSC Anti-Doping Rules to an appellate body for final and binding arbitration, which in the case of International-Level Athletes is the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).

I acknowledge and agree that the decisions of the arbitral appellate body referenced above shall be final and enforceable, and that I will not bring any claim, arbitration, lawsuit or litigation in any other court or tribunal.

I have read and understand the present declaration.

_____________________________
Date

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Print Name (Last Name, First Name)

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Date of Birth (Day/Month/Year)

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Signature (or, if a minor, signature of legal guardian)