The word doping is probably derived from the Dutch word "dop", the name of an alcoholic beverage made of grape skins used by Zulu warriors in order to enhance their prowess in battle. The term became current around the turn of the 20th century, originally referring to illegal drugging of racehorses. The practice of enhancing performance through foreign substances or other artificial means, however, is as old as competitive sport itself.

WBSC President Riccardo Fraccari on the importance of anti-doping

Doping is the word used in sport when athletes use prohibited substances or methods to unfairly improve their sporting performance.


The practice of doping in sport – the use of substances and artificial ways of enhancing performance – is possibly as old as organised sport itself. Even in Ancient Greece, athletes used special diets and stimulants to build strength, but it was not until the 1920s that it became clear that restrictions were needed on drug use in sport.

The first International Sport Federation to ban the use of stimulating substances was the International Association of Athletics Federations in 1928, paving the way for many other sports to follow in their footsteps. However, no testing was carried out at this time.

It was not until the death of Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen as he took part in the Olympic Games in Rome in 1960, where the autopsy revealed traces of amphetamine, that pressure mounted for sports authorities to introduce drug testing.

Six years later, in 1966, the cycling and football federations (UCI and FIFA) introduced drug tests during their World Championships, pre-empting the first Olympic testing at the Grenoble Winter Games and the Olympics in Mexico, in 1968.

As for Gymnastics, the first in-competition doping controls were performed in 2004 by FIG and UEG, and out-of-competition testing started in 2005 by WADA.

Principles and values of clean baseball and softball

As you can see in the section Education Tools, the WBSC Integrity Unit has developed the Education Plan 2021-2024 “Play-Ball, Play-Fair”, in compliance with the WADA International Standard for Education (ISE).

The relevance of values within the context of anti-doping education for baseball and softball stakeholders is emphasised in the plan and in particular in the chapter 1.1 “WBSC vision, mission and macro-objectives of the education plan”.

The values of the WBSC Integrity Unit in the sensitisation about anti-doping are: sense of sacrifice, respect for himself and the opponent and fairness.

You can find more information in the Education Plan of the WBSC Integrity Unit.

The spirit of sport is the celebration of the human spirit, body and mind. It is the essence of the Olympism and is reflected in the sports values:

  • Health;
  • Ethics, fair play and honesty;
  • Athletes’ rights;
  • Excellence in performance;
  • Character and Education;
  • Fun and joy;
  • Teamwork;
  • Dedication and commitment;
  • Respect for rules and laws;
  • Respect for self and other participants;
  • Courage;
  • Community and solidarity.

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) values are excellence, friendship and respect and those promoted by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) are respect, integrity, fairness, collaboration and excellence.