Physical Demands of Baseball & Softball

The following table represents the main physiological processes involved in some international sports including baseball and softball.

Strength & powerStrength is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert maximal force against resistance. Power is the ability to move weight with speed. Power is the workload multiplied by velocity most commonly expressed in Watts. The metabolism most used in this case is the anaerobic one (ATP-PCr) where the energy system is usually used under 15 seconds.
Muscular enduranceIt is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to execute sub-maximal force against resistance for an extended period of time. The metabolism most used is the Lactic one (glycolytic) where the effort fluctuates between 15 secs and 2 mins.
Aerobic enduranceIt is the body’s capacity to sustain medium to high intensity physical exercise for extended periods of time through the continual acquisition of oxygen. The metabolism most used is the aerobic one where the energy expenditure overcomes 1 min with no limitation.
Movement agilityIt is the ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively.
Reaction timeIt is the length of time taken for a person or system to respond to a given stimulus.
Psychomotor skillsIt is the stable and reliable link between perception of body (sensory-motor area) with environment and execution of goal‐directed sports actions.
AccuracyWhere the objective is to hit a static or moving target of various shapes and sizes.

Among these, please below you can find the main used in baseball and softball:

  • psychomotor skills;
  • accuracy;
  • reaction time;
  • strength;
  • power

In order to benefit of a great health, it is paramount to consider the athlete‘s health and well-being, composed mainly of:

  • mental health;
  • cardiovascular health;
  • muscoskeletal health;
  • nutrition and dietary habits;
  • injury prevention.

It is very important to put a particular focus on:

  • concussion;
  • hearth rate;
  • energy demand of training and energy food nutrients;
  • specific medical concerns of the female athlete (energy deficiency syndrome);
  • sleeping disorders, risky behaviours.

Document name
Medical Commission Report on injuries and risk factors in baseball and softball